* 1111 – Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
* 1204 – Constantinople falls to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, temporarily ending the Byzantine Empire.
* 1256 – The Grand Union of the Augustinian order formed when Pope Alexander IV issues a papal bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae.
* 1598 – Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots. (Edict repealed in 1685.)
* 1612 – Miyamoto Musashi defeats Sasaki Kojiro at Funajima island.
* 1613 – Samuel Argall captures Native American princess Pocahontas in Passapatanzy, Virginia to ransom her for some English prisoners held by her father. She is brought to Henricus as hostage.
* 1742 – George Frideric Handel's oratorio Messiah makes its world-premiere in Dublin, Ireland.
* 1776 – American Revolutionary War: American forces are surprised in the Battle of Bound Brook, New Jersey.
* 1796 – The first elephant ever seen in the United States arrives from India.
* 1829 – The British Parliament grants freedom of religion to Roman Catholics.
* 1849 – Hungary becomes a republic.
* 1861 – American Civil War: Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces.
* 1868 – The Abyssinian War ends as British and Indian troops capture Magdala.
* 1870 – The Metropolitan Museum of Art founded.
* 1873 – The Colfax Massacre takes place.
* 1902 – James C. Penney opens his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming.
* 1909 – The Turkish military reverses the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 to force the deposal of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.
* 1919 – The Establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
* 1919 – Jallianwala Bagh massacre: British troops massacre at least 379 unarmed demonstrators in Amritsar, India. At least 1200 wounded.
* 1919 – Eugene V. Debs enters prison at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia, for speaking out against the draft during World War I.
* 1941 – Pact of neutrality between the USSR and Japan is signed.
* 1943 – World War II: The discovery of a mass grave of Polish prisoners of war executed by Soviet forces in the Katyń Forest Massacre is announced, causing a diplomatic rift between the Polish government in exile in London from the Soviet Union, which denies responsibility.
* 1943 – The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C., on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson's birth.
* 1944 – Diplomatic relations between New Zealand and the Soviet Union are established.
* 1945 – World War II: German troops kill more than 1,000 political and military prisoners in Gardelegen Germany.
* 1945 – World War II: Soviet and Bulgarian forces capture Vienna, Austria.
* 1948 – The Hadassah medical convoy massacre: In an ambush, 79 Jewish doctors, nurses and medical students from Hadassah Hospital and a British soldier are massacred by Arabs in Sheikh Jarra near Jerusalem.
* 1953 – CIA director Allen Dulles launches the mind-control program MKULTRA.
* 1958 – During the Cold War, American Van Cliburn wins the inaugural International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow.
* 1960 – The United States launches Transit 1-B, the world's first satellite navigation system.
* 1964 – At the Academy Awards, Sidney Poitier becomes the first African-American male to win the Best Actor award for the 1963 film Lilies of the Field.
* 1970 – An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, putting the crew in great danger and causing major damage to the spacecraft while en route to the Moon.
* 1972 – The Universal Postal Union decides to recognize the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate Chinese representative, effectively expelling the Republic of China administering Taiwan.
* 1972 – Vietnam War: The Battle of An Lộc begins.
* 1974 – Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches the United States' first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.
* 1975 – Bus massacre in Lebanon: Attack by the Phalangist resistance kill 26 militia members of the P.F.L. of Palestine, marking the start of the 15-year Lebanese Civil War.
* 1976 – The United States Treasury Department reintroduced the two-dollar bill as a Federal Reserve Note on Thomas Jefferson's 233rd birthday as part of the United States Bicentennial celebration.
* 1984 – India moves into Siachen Glacier thus annexing more territory from the Line of Control.
* 1987 – Portugal and the People's Republic of China sign an agreement in which Macau would be returned to China in 1999.
* 1992 – The Great Chicago Flood.
* 1997 – Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win the Masters Tournament.