Tuesday, April 10, 2012

April 10 in History

* 428 – Nestorius becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
* 837 – Halley's Comet and Earth experienced their closest approach to one another when their separating distance equalled 0.0342 AU (3.2 million miles).
* 879 – Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks.
* 1407 – the lama Deshin Shekpa visits the Ming Dynasty capital at Nanjing. He is awarded with the title Great Treasure Prince of Dharma.
* 1500 – Ludovico Sforza is captured by the Swiss troops at Novara and is handed over to the French.
* 1606 – The Charter of the Virginia Company of London is established by royal charter by James I of England with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.
* 1710 – The Statute of Anne, the first law regulating copyright, enters into force in Great Britain.
* 1741 – War of the Austrian Succession: Prussia defeats Austria in the Battle of Mollwitz.
* 1815 – The Mount Tambora volcano begins a three-month-long eruption, lasting until July 15. The eruption ultimately kills 71,000 people and affects Earth's climate for the next two years.
* 1816 – The United States Government approves the creation of the Second Bank of the United States.
* 1821 – Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople is hanged by the Ottoman government from the main gate of the Patriarchate and his body is thrown into the Bosphorus.
* 1826 – The 10,500 inhabitants of the Greek town Missolonghi start leaving the town after a year's siege by Turkish forces. Very few of them survive.
* 1856 – The Theta Chi fraternity is founded at Norwich University.
* 1858 – The original Big Ben, a 14.5 tonne bell for the Palace of Westminster is cast in Stockton-on-Tees by Warner's of Cripplegate. This however cracked during testing and is recast into the 13.76 tonne bell by Whitechapel Bell Foundry and is still in use to date.
* 1864 – Archduke Maximilian of Habsburg is elected emperor of Mexico.
* 1865 – American Civil War: A day after his surrender to Union forces, Confederate General Robert E. Lee addresses his troops for the last time.
* 1866 – The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City by Henry Bergh.
* 1868 – At Arogee in Abyssinia, British and Indian forces defeat an army of Emperor Tewodros II. While 700 Ethiopians are killed and many more injured, only two die from the British/Indian troops.
* 1874 – The first Arbor Day is celebrated in Nebraska.
* 1887 – On Easter Sunday, Pope Leo XIII authorizes the establishment of The Catholic University of America.
* 1904 – British mystic Aleister Crowley transcribes the third and final chapter of The Book of The Law.
* 1912 – The Titanic leaves port in Southampton, England for her first and only voyage.
* 1916 – The Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA) is created in New York City.
* 1919 – Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead by government forces in Morelos.
* 1925 – The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is first published in New York City, by Charles Scribner's Sons.
* 1941 – World War II: The Axis Powers in Europe establish the Independent State of Croatia from occupied Yugoslavia with Ante Pavelić's Ustaše fascist insurgents in power.
* 1944 – Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler escape from the Birkenau death camp.
* 1953 – Warner Brothers premieres the first 3-D film from a major American studio, entitled House of Wax.
* 1957 – The Suez Canal is reopened for all shipping after being closed for three months.
* 1959 – Akihito, future Emperor of Japan, weds Michiko.
* 1963 – 129 people die when the submarine USS Thresher sinks at sea.
* 1968 – Shipwreck of the New Zealand inter-island ferry TEV Wahine outside Wellington harbour.
* 1970 – Paul McCartney announces that he leaves The Beatles for personal and professional reasons.
* 1971 – Ping Pong Diplomacy: In an attempt to thaw relations with the United States, the People's Republic of China hosts the U.S. table tennis team for a weeklong visit.
* 1972 – 20 days after he is kidnapped in Buenos Aires, Oberdan Sallustro is executed by communist guerrillas.
* 1972 – Vietnam War: For the first time since November 1967, American B-52 bombers reportedly begin bombing North Vietnam.
* 1972 – Seventy-four nations sign the Biological Weapons Convention, the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of biological weapons.
* 1973 – A British Vanguard turboprop crashes during a snowstorm at Basel, Switzerland killing 104.
* 1979 – Red River Valley Tornado Outbreak: A tornado lands in Wichita Falls, Texas killing 42 people.
* 1991 – Italian ferry Moby Prince collides with an oil tanker in dense fog off Livorno, Italy killing 140.
* 1991 – A rare tropical storm develops in the South Atlantic Ocean near Angola; the first to be documented by satellites.
* 1992 – The Maraghar Massacre, killing of ethnic Armenian civil population of the village Maraghar by Azerbaijani troops during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
* 2009 – President of Fiji Ratu Josefa Iloilo announces he will suspend the constitution and assume all governance in the country, creating a constitutional crisis.
* 2010 – Polish Air Force Tu-154M crashes near Smolensk, Russia, killing all 96 people on board including President Lech Kaczyński.

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