* 12 BC – The Roman Emperor Augustus is named Pontifex Maximus, incorporating the position into that of the Emperor
* 1454 – Thirteen Years' War: Delegates of the Prussian Confederation pledge allegiance to King Casimir IV of Poland who agrees to commit his forces in aiding the Confederation's struggle for independence from the Teutonic Knights.
* 1521 – Ferdinand Magellan arrives at Guam.
* 1788 – The First Fleet arrives at Norfolk Island in order to found a convict settlement.
* 1820 – The Missouri Compromise is signed into law by President James Monroe. The compromise allows Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state, but makes the rest of the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase territory slavery-free.
* 1834 – York, Upper Canada is incorporated as Toronto.
* 1836 – Texas Revolution: Battle of the Alamo – After a thirteen day siege by an army of 3,000 Mexican troops, the 187 Texas volunteers, including frontiersman Davy Crockett and colonel Jim Bowie, defending the Alamo are killed and the fort is captured.
* 1840 – The Baltimore College of Dental Surgery opens, the first dental school.
* 1857 – The Supreme Court of the United States rules in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case.
* 1869 – Dmitri Mendeleev presents the first periodic table to the Russian Chemical Society.
* 1882 – The Serbian kingdom is refounded.
* 1899 – Bayer registers aspirin as a trademark.
* 1921 – Portuguese Communist Party is founded as the Portuguese Section of the Communist International.
* 1930 – International Unemployment Day demonstrations globally initiated by the Comintern
* 1945 – Cologne is captured by American Troops.
* 1946 – Ho Chi Minh signs an agreement with France which recognizes Vietnam as an autonomous state in the Indochinese Federation and the French Union.
* 1951 – The trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg begins.
* 1953 – Georgy Malenkov succeeds Joseph Stalin as Premier of the Soviet Union and First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
* 1957 – Ghana becomes the first Sub-Saharan country to gain Independence from the British
* 1964 – Nation of Islam's Elijah Muhammad officially gives boxing champion Cassius Clay the name Muhammad Ali.
* 1964 – Constantine II becomes King of Greece.
* 1965 – Premier Tom Playford of South Australia loses power after 27 years in office.
* 1967 – Joseph Stalin's daughter Svetlana Alliluyeva defects to the United States.
* 1968 – The first of the East L.A. Walkouts take place at several high schools.
* 1968 – Three black males are executed by Rhodesia, the first executions since UDI, prompting international condemnation.
* 1970 – Blast at Weather Underground safe house in Greenwich Village kills three.
* 1975 – For the first time, ever, the Zapruder film of the assassination of John F. Kennedy is shown in motion to a national TV audience by Robert J. Groden and Dick Gregory.
* 1975 – Algiers Accord: Iran and Iraq announce a settlement of their border dispute.
* 1981 – After 19 years of presenting the CBS Evening News, Walter Cronkite signs off for the last time.
* 1983 – The first United States Football League game is played.
* 1987 – The British ferry MS Herald of Free Enterprise capsizes in about 90 seconds killing 193.
* 1988 – Three Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteers are killed by Special Air Service on the territory of Gibraltar in the conclusion of Operation Flavius.
* 1992 – Michelangelo computer virus begins to affect computers.
* 2008 – A Palestinian gunman shoots and kills 8 students and critically injures 11 in the library of the Mercaz HaRav yeshiva, in Jerusalem, Israel.