Friday, March 16, 2012

March 16 in History

* 597 BC – Babylonians capture Jerusalem, and replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king.
* 37 – Caligula becomes Roman Emperor after the death of his great uncle, Tiberius.
* 455 – Emperor Valentinian III is assassinated by two Hunnic retainers while training with the bow on the Campus Martius (Rome).
* 1190 – Massacre of Jews at Clifford's Tower, York.
* 1244 – Over 200 Cathars are burned after the Fall of Montségur.
* 1322 – The Battle of Boroughbridge take place in the Despenser Wars.
* 1521 – Ferdinand Magellan reaches the Philippines.
* 1621 – Samoset, a Mohegan, visited the settlers of Plymouth Colony and greets them, "Welcome, Englishmen! My name is Samoset."
* 1660 – The Long Parliament of England is dissolved so as to prepare for the new Convention Parliament.
* 1689 – The 23rd Regiment of Foot or Royal Welch Fusiliers is founded.
* 1782 – American Revolutionary War: Spanish troops capture the British-held island of Roatán.
* 1792 – King Gustav III of Sweden is shot; he dies on March 29.
* 1802 – The Army Corps of Engineers is established to found and operate the United States Military Academy at West Point.
* 1812 – Battle of Badajoz (March 16 – April 6) – British and Portuguese forces besieged and defeated French garrison during Peninsular War.
* 1815 – Prince Willem proclaimes himself King of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, the first constitutional monarch in the Netherlands.
* 1818 – Second Battle of Cancha Rayada – Spanish forces defeated Chileans under José de San Martín.
* 1861 – Edward Clark became Governor of Texas, replacing Sam Houston, who has been evicted from the office for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy.
* 1865 – American Civil War: The Battle of Averasborough began as Confederate forces suffer irreplaceable casualties in the final months of the war.
* 1872 – The Wanderers F.C. won the first FA Cup, the oldest football competition in the world, beating Royal Engineers A.F.C. 1-0 at The Oval in Kennington, London.
* 1900 – Sir Arthur Evans purchased the land around the ruins of Knossos, the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete.
* 1912 – Lawrence Oates, an ill member of Robert Falcon Scott's South Pole expedition, left the tent to die, saying: "I am just going outside and may be some time."
* 1916 – The 7th and 10th US cavalry regiments under John J. Pershing crossed the US-Mexico border to join the hunt for Pancho Villa.
* 1924 – In accordance with the Treaty of Rome, Fiume became annexed as part of Italy.
* 1926 – History of Rocketry: Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket, at Auburn, Massachusetts.
* 1935 – Adolf Hitler ordered Germany to rearm herself in violation of the Versailles Treaty. Conscription is reintroduced to form the Wehrmacht.
* 1939 – From Prague Castle, Hitler proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate.
* 1939 – Marriage of Princess Fawzia of Egypt to Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran.
* 1940 – First person killed in a German bombing raid on the UK in World War II during a raid on Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands, James Isbister.
* 1942 – The first V-2 rocket test launch. It exploded at lift-off.
* 1945 – World War II: The Battle of Iwo Jima ended, but small pockets of Japanese resistance persisted.
* 1945 – Ninety percent of Würzburg, Germany is destroyed in only 20 minutes by British bombers. 5,000 are killed.
* 1950 – Communist Czechoslovakia's ministry of foreign affairs asked nuncios of Vatican to leave the country.
* 1958 – The Ford Motor Company produced its 50 millionth automobile, the Thunderbird, averaging almost a million cars a year since the company's founding.
* 1962 – A Flying Tiger Line Super Constellation disappeared in the western Pacific Ocean, with 107 missing.
* 1966 – Launch of Gemini 8, the 12th manned American space flight and first space docking with the Agena Target Vehicle.
* 1968 – Vietnam War: In the My Lai massacre, between 350 and 500 Vietnamese villagers (men, women, and children) are killed by American troops.
* 1968 – General Motors produced its 100 millionth automobile, the Oldsmobile Toronado.
* 1976 – British Prime Minister Harold Wilson resigned, citing personal reasons.
* 1977 – Assassination of Kamal Jumblatt the main leader of the anti-government forces in the Lebanese Civil War.
* 1978 – Former Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro is kidnapped and is later killed by his captors.
* 1978 – Supertanker Amoco Cadiz split in two after running aground on the Portsall Rocks, three miles off the coast of Brittany, resulting in the 5th-largest oil spill in history.
* 1983 – Demolition of the radio tower Ismaning, the last wooden radio tower in Germany.
* 1984 – William Buckley, the CIA station chief in Beirut, Lebanon, is kidnapped by Islamic fundamentalists and later died in captivity.
* 1985 – Associated Press newsman Terry Anderson is taken hostage in Beirut. He is released on December 4, 1991.
* 1988 – Iran-Contra Affair: Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North and Vice Admiral John Poindexter are indicted on charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States.
* 1988 – Halabja poison gas attack: The Kurdish town of Halabjah in Iraq is attacked with a mix of poison gas and nerve agents on the orders of Saddam Hussein, killing 5000 people and injuring about 10000 people.
* 1995 – Mississippi formally ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, becoming the last state to approve the abolition of slavery. The Thirteenth Amendment is officially ratified in 1865.
* 2005 – Israel officially handed over Jericho to Palestinian control.

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