Wednesday, February 29, 2012

February 29, 1704- The Raid on Deerfield

The Raid on Deerfield occurred during Queen Anne's War on February 29, 1704, when French and Native American forces under the command of Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville attacked the English settlement at Deerfield, Massachusetts just before dawn, burning part of the town and killing 56 villagers.

French organizers of the raid drew on a variety of Indian populations, including in the force of about 300 a number of Pocumtucs who had once lived in the Deerfield area. The diversity of personnel involved in the raid meant that it did not achieve full surprise when they entered the palisaded village. The defenders of some fortified houses in the village successfully held off the raiders until arriving reinforcements prompted their retreat. More than 100 captives were taken, and about 40 percent of the village houses were destroyed.

The raid has been immortalized as a part of the early American frontier story, principally due to the account of one of its captives, the Rev. John Williams. He and his family were forced to make the long overland journey to Canada. His young daughter Eunice was adopted by a Mohawk family; she became assimilated and married a Mohawk man. Williams' account, The Redeemed Captive, was published in 1707 and was widely popular in the colonies.

The raiders left most of their equipment and supplies 25 to 30 miles (40 to 48 kilometers) north of the village before establishing a cold camp about 2 miles (3.2 km) from Deerfield on February 28, 1704. From this vantage point, they observed the villagers as they prepared for the night. Since the villagers had been alerted to the possibility of a raid, they all took refuge within the palisade, and a guard was posted.

The raiders had noticed that snow drifts extended to the top of the palisade; this greatly simplified their entry into the fortifications just before dawn on February 29. They carefully approached the village, stopping periodically so that the sentry might confuse the noises they made with more natural sounds. A few men climbed over the palisade via the snow drifts and then opened the north gate to admit the rest. Primary sources vary on the degree of alertness of the village guard that night; one account claims he fell asleep, while another claims that he discharged his weapon to raise the alarm when the attack began, but that it was not heard by many people. As the Reverend John Williams later recounted, "with horrid shouting and yelling", the raiders launched their attack "like a flood upon us."

The raiders' attack probably did not go exactly as they had intended. In attacks on Schenectady, New York and Durham, New Hampshire in the 1690s (both of which included Hertel de Rouville's father), the raiders had simultaneously attacked all of the houses; at Deerfield, this did not happen. Historians Haefeli and Sweeney theorize that the failure to launch a coordinated assault was caused by the wide diversity within the attacking force.

The raiders swept into the village, and began attacking individual houses. Reverend Williams' house was among the first to be raided; Williams' life was spared when his gunshot misfired, and he was taken prisoner. Two of his children and a servant were slain; the rest of his family and his other servant were also taken prisoner.Similar scenarios occurred in many of the other houses. The residents of Benoni Stebbins' house, which was not among the early ones attacked, resisted the raiders' attacks, which lasted until well after daylight. A second house, near the northwestern corner of the palisade, was also successfully defended. The raiders moved through the village, herding their prisoners to an area just north of the town, rifling houses for items of value, and setting a number of them on fire.

As the morning progressed, some of the raiders began moving north with their prisoners, but paused about a mile north of the town to wait for those who had not yet finished in the village. The men in the Stebbins house kept the battle up for two hours; they were on the verge of surrendering when reinforcements arrived. Early in the raid, young John Sheldon managed to escape over the palisade and began making his way to nearby Hadley to raise the alarm. The fires from the burning houses had been spotted, and "thirty men from Hadley and Hatfield" rushed to Deerfield. Their arrival prompted the remaining raiders to flee, some of whom abandoned their weapons and other supplies in a panic.

The sudden departure of the raiders and the arrival of reinforcements raised the spirits of the beleaguered survivors, and about 20 Deerfield men joined the Hadley men in chasing after the fleeing raiders. The English and the raiders skirmished in the meadows just north of the village, where the English reported "killing and wounding many of them". However, the pursuit was conducted rashly, and the English soon ran into an ambush prepared by the raiders who had left the village earlier. Of the 50 or so men that gave chase, nine were killed and several more were wounded. After the ambush they retreated back to the village, and the raiders headed north with their prisoners.

As the alarm spread to the south, reinforcements continued to arrive in the village. By midnight, 80 men from Northampton and Springfield had arrived, and men from Connecticut swelled the force to 250 by the end of the next day. After debating over what action to take, they decided that the difficulties of pursuit were not worth the risks. Leaving a strong garrison in the village, most of the militia returned to their homes.

The raiders destroyed 17 of the village's 41 homes, and looted many of the others. They killed 44 residents of Deerfield: 10 men, 9 women, and 25 children, five garrison soldiers, and seven Hadley men. Of those who died inside the village, 15 died of fire-related causes; most of the rest were killed by edged or blunt weapons. They took 109 villagers captives; this represented 40 per cent of the village population. They also took captive three Frenchmen who had been living among the villagers. The raiders also suffered losses, although reports vary. New France's Governor-General Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil reported the expedition only lost 11 men, and 22 were wounded, including Hertel de Rouville and one of his brothers. John Williams heard from French soldiers during his captivity that more than 40 French and Indian soldiers were lost; Haefeli and Sweeney believe the lower French figures are more credible, especially when compared to casualties incurred in other raids.

February 29 in History

Although most years of the modern calendar have 365 days, a complete revolution around the sun takes approximately 365 days and 6 hours. Every four years, during which an extra 24 hours have accumulated, one extra day is added to keep the count coordinated with the sun's apparent position.

It is, however, slightly inaccurate to calculate an additional 6 hours each year. A better approximation, derived from the Alfonsine tables, is that the Earth takes a complete revolution around the sun in 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, and 16 seconds. To compensate for the difference, an end-of-century year is not a leap year unless it is also exactly divisible by 400. This means that the years 1600 and 2000 were leap years, as will be 2400 and 2800, but the years 1700, 1800 and 1900 were not, nor will be 2100, 2200 and 2300.

The Gregorian calendar repeats itself every 400 years, which is exactly 20,871 weeks including 97 leap days. Over this period, February 29 falls 13 times on a Sunday, Tuesday, or Thursday; 14 times on a Friday or Saturday; and 15 times on a Monday or Wednesday.

The concepts of the leap year and leap day are distinct from the leap second, which results from changes in the Earth's rotational speed. Adding a leap day (after 23 February) shifts the commemorations in 1962 Roman Missal.

The leap day was introduced as part of the Julian reform. The day following the Terminalia (February 23) was doubled, forming the "bis sextum"—literally 'double sixth', since February 24 was 'the sixth day before the Kalends of March' using Roman inclusive counting (March 1 was the 'first day'). Although exceptions exist, the first day of the bis sextum (February 24) was usually regarded as the intercalated or "bissextile" day since the third century. February 29 came to be regarded as the leap day when the Roman system of numbering days was replaced by sequential numbering in the late Middle Ages.

In the United Kingdom, a person born on February 29 legally attains the age of 18 on March 1 in the relevant year. In the European Union, February 29 officially became the leap day only in 2000.

In cases of New Zealand citizens, the NZ Parliament has decreed that if a date of birth was February 29, in non-leap years the legal birth date date shall be the preceding day, the 28th. This is affirmed in §2(2) of the Land Transport Act 1999.

In France, there is a humorous periodical called La Bougie du Sapeur (The Sapper's Candle) published every February 29 since 1980. The name is a reference to the sapper Camember, a comic strip character born February 29, 1844 who was created by Georges Colomb in the 1890s.

* 1504 – Christopher Columbus uses his knowledge of a lunar eclipse that night to convince Native Americans to provide him with supplies.
* 1704 – Queen Anne's War: French forces and Native Americans stage a raid on Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing 56 villagers and taking more than 100 captive.
* 1712 – February 29 is followed by February 30 in Sweden, in a move to abolish the Swedish calendar for a return to the Old style.
* 1720 – Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden abdicates in favour of her husband, who becomes King Frederick I.
* 1796 – The Jay Treaty between the United States and Great Britain comes into force, facilitating ten years of peaceful trade between the two nations.
* 1864 – American Civil War: Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid fails – plans to free 15,000 Union soldiers being held near Richmond, Virginia are thwarted.
* 1892 – St. Petersburg, Florida is incorporated.
* 1916 – Child labor: In South Carolina, the minimum working age for factory, mill, and mine workers is raised from twelve to fourteen years old.
* 1932 – TIME magazine features eccentric American politician William "Alfalfa" Murray on its cover after Murray stated his intention to run for President of the United States.
* 1936 – Baby Snooks, played by Fanny Brice, debuts on the radio program The Ziegfeld Follies of the Air.
* 1940 – For her role as Mammy in Gone with the Wind, Hattie McDaniel becomes the first African American to win an Academy Award.
* 1940 – Finland initiates Winter War peace negotiations
* 1940 – In a ceremony held in Berkeley, California, because of the war, physicist Ernest Lawrence receives the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics from Sweden's Consul General in San Francisco.
* 1944 – World War II: The Admiralty Islands are invaded in Operation Brewer led by American General Douglas MacArthur.
* 1952 – The island of Heligoland is restored to German authority.
* 1956 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces to the nation that he is running for a second term.
* 1960 – An earthquake in Morocco kills over 3,000 people and nearly destroys Agadir in the southern part of the country.
* 1960 – Family Circus makes its debut.
* 1964 – In Sydney, Australian swimmer Dawn Fraser sets a new world record in the 100-meter freestyle swimming competition (58.9 seconds).
* 1972 – Vietnam War: Vietnamization – South Korea withdraws 11,000 of its 48,000 troops from Vietnam.
* 1972 – Hank Aaron becomes the first player in the history of Major League Baseball to sign a $200,000 contract.
* 1980 – Gordie Howe of the then Hartford Whalers makes NHL history as he scores his 800th goal.
* 1984 – Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau announces he will retire as soon as the Liberals can elect another leader.
* 1988 – South African archbishop Desmond Tutu is arrested along with 100 clergymen during a five-day anti-apartheid demonstration in Cape Town
* 1988 – Svend Robinson becomes the first member of the Canadian House of Commons to come out as gay.
* 1996 – Faucett Flight 251 crashes in the Andes, killing 123 people.
* 2004 – Jean-Bertrand Aristide is removed as President of Haiti following a coup.

February 29 Birthdays

A person who is born on February 29 may be called a "leapling" or a "leap year baby". In non-leap years, they typically celebrate their birthday on either February 28 or March 1.

For legal purposes, their legal birthdays depend on how different laws count time intervals. In England and Wales, the legal birthday of a leapling is March 1 in common years. In Taiwan, the legal birthday of a leapling is February 28 in common years. So in England and Wales, a person born on February 29, 1996 will have legally reached 18 years old on March 1, 2014; in Taiwan he or she legally becomes 18 on February 28, 2014.

"If a period fixed by weeks, months, and years does not commence from the beginning of a week, month, or year, it ends with the ending of the day which proceeds the day of the last week, month, or year which corresponds to that on which it began to commence. But if there is no corresponding day in the last month, the period ends with the ending of the last day of the last month."

There are many instances in children's literature where a person's claim to be only a quarter of their actual age turns out to be based on counting their leap-year birthdays. A similar device is used in the plot of Gilbert and Sullivan's 1879 comic opera The Pirates of Penzance: As a child, Frederic was apprenticed to a band of pirates until the age of 21. Now, having passed his 21st year, he leaves the pirate band and falls in love. However, it turns out that the pirate indenture says that his apprenticeship does not end until his 21st birthday, and since he was born on February 29, that day will not arrive until he is in his eighties. As such, he must leave his fiancée and return to the pirates. It may be worked out from the opera's dialogue that Frederic's birthday is February 29, 1852 thus making the opera set in 1873. (This assumes that Frederic is aware that 1900 will not be a leap year. If not, the dates would be later by four years.)

The only notable person known to have both been born and died on February 29 was Sir James Wilson (1812–1880), Premier of Tasmania.

Other notable persons born on February 29:

* 1468 – Pope Paul III (d. 1549)
* 1568 – Juan Bautista Comes, Spanish composer (d. 1643)
* 1692 – John Byrom, English poet (d. 1763)
* 1724 – Eva Marie Veigel, ballet dancer and wife of actor David Garrick (d. 1822)
* 1736 – Ann Lee, American founder of Shakers (d. 1784)
* 1792 – Gioachino Rossini, Italian composer (d. 1868)
* 1812 – Sir James Wilson, Premier of Tasmania (d. 1880)
* 1836 – Dickey Pearce, American baseball player and manager (d. 1908)
* 1840 – John Philip Holland, Irish inventor (d. 1914)
* 1852 – Frank Gavan Duffy, Australian judge (d. 1936)
* 1852 – George Maximilianovich, 6th Duke of Leuchtenberg, Russian nobleman (d. 1912)
* 1860 – Herman Hollerith, American statistician (d. 1929)
* 1892 – Ed Appleton, American baseball player (d. 1932)
* 1896 – Morarji Desai, Prime Minister of India (d. 1995)
* 1896 – Roy Parker, baseball player (d. 1954)
* 1896 – William A. Wellman, American film director (d. 1975)
* 1904 – Jimmy Dorsey, American bandleader (d. 1957)
* 1904 – Pepper Martin, baseball player (d. 1965)
* 1904 – Rukmini Devi Arundale, Indian dancer and founder of Kalakshetra (d. 1986)
* 1904 – Wolfe+585, Senior (alleged date), German-born American typesetter who has the longest personal name ever used (death year unknown)
* 1908 – Balthus, French-Polish painter (d. 2001)
* 1908 – Dee Brown, American writer (d. 2002)
* 1908 – Alf Gover, English cricketer (d. 2001)
* 1916 – Dinah Shore, American singer and actress (d. 1994)
* 1920 – Arthur Franz, American actor (d. 2006)
* 1920 – James Mitchell, American actor (d. 2010)
* 1920 – Michèle Morgan, French actress
* 1920 – Howard Nemerov, American poet (d. 1991)
* 1920 – Ivan Ivanovich Petrov, Russian operatic bass (d. 2003)
* 1920 – Rolland W. Redlin, American politician (d. 2011)
* 1924 – Al Rosen, American baseball player
* 1924 – David Beattie, New Zealand Governor-General (d. 2001)
* 1924 – Carlos Humberto Romero, President of El Salvador
* 1928 – Joss Ackland, English actor
* 1928 – Vance Haynes, American archaeologist
* 1928 – Terry Lewis, Australian police commissioner
* 1928 – Tempest Storm, American burlesque performer
* 1932 – Paul Giel, American baseball player (d. 2002)
* 1932 – Gene Golub, American mathematician (d. 2007)
* 1932 – Masten Gregory, American F1 Driver (d. 1985)
* 1932 – Reri Grist, African-American coloratura soprano
* 1932 – Jaguar, Brazilian cartoonist
* 1936 – Jack Lousma, American astronaut
* 1936 – Henri Richard, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1936 – Alex Rocco, American actor
* 1940 – Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople
* 1940 – William H. Turner, Jr. American horse trainer
* 1944 – Ene Ergma, Estonian politician
* 1944 – Dennis Farina, American actor
* 1944 – Phyllis Frelich, American actress
* 1944 – Steve Mingori, American baseball player (d. 2008)
* 1944 – Paolo Eleuteri Serpieri, Italian illustrator
* 1948 – Jirō Akagawa, Japanese novelist
* 1948 – Ken Foree, American actor
* 1952 – Al Autry, American baseball player
* 1952 – Sharon Dahlonega Raiford Bush, American television personality
* 1952 – Tim Powers, American writer
* 1952 – Raisa Smetanina, Russian cross-country skier
* 1952 – Bart Stupak, American congressman
* 1956 – Jonathan Coleman, Anglo-Australian entertainer
* 1956 – Jerry Fry, American baseball player
* 1956 – Bob Speller, Canadian politician
* 1956 – J. Randy Taraborrelli, American celebrity journalist
* 1956 – Aileen Wuornos, American serial killer (d. 2002)
* 1960 – Khaled, Algerian raï musician
* 1960 – Bill Long, American baseball player
* 1960 – Richard Ramirez, American serial killer
* 1960 – Tony Robbins, American motivational speaker
* 1964 – Lyndon Byers, Canadian hockey player and Boston radio personality
* 1964 – Mervyn Warren, American film & TV composer and musician
* 1968 – Suanne Braun, South African actress
* 1968 – Chucky Brown, American basketball player
* 1968 – Pete Fenson, American curler
* 1968 – Naoko Iijima, Japanese actress
* 1968 – Gonzalo Lira, Chilean-American novelist
* 1968 – Bryce Paup, American football player
* 1968 – Wendi Peters, British actress
* 1968 – Eugene Volokh, American law professor
* 1968 – Frank Woodley, Australian comedian
* 1972 – Antonio Sabàto, Jr., Italian-born actor
* 1972 – Dave Williams, American singer (Drowning Pool) (d. 2002)
* 1972 – Saul Williams, American rapper, poet, and actor
* 1972 – Mike Pollitt, English footballer
* 1972 – Pedro Zamora, Cuban-born American Real World housemate and AIDS activist (d. 1994)
* 1972 – Iván García, Cuban athlete
* 1976 – Katalin Kovács, Hungarian sprint canoer
* 1976 – Ja Rule, American rapper and actor
* 1976 – Terrence Long, American baseball player
* 1976 – Zoë Baker, New Zealand swimmer
* 1980 – Simon Gagné, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1980 – Taylor Twellman, American soccer player
* 1980 – Clinton Toopi, New Zealand rugby league footballer
* 1980 – Chris Conley, American musician
* 1980 – Ruben Plaza, Spanish cyclist
* 1980 – Michail Mouroutsos, Greek Olympic taekwondo gold medalist
* 1984 – Darren Ambrose, English footballer
* 1984 – Cullen Jones, American swimmer
* 1984 – Nuria Martinez, Spanish basketball player WNBA
* 1984 – Adam Sinclair, Indian field hockey player
* 1984 – Dennis Walger, German rugby player
* 1984 – Cam Ward, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1988 – Scott Golbourne, English footballer
* 1988 – Benedikt Höwedes, German footballer
* 1988 – Bobby Sanguinetti, American ice hockey player
* 1992 – Perry Kitchen, American soccer player
* 1992 – Sean Abbott, Australian cricketer

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

February 28, 1900- The Siege of Ladysmith lifted

The Siege of Ladysmith was a protracted engagement in the Second Boer War, taking place between 30 October 1899 and 28 February 1900 at Ladysmith, Natal.

As war with the Boer republics appeared likely in June 1899, the War Office in Britain dispatched a total of 15,000 troops to Natal, expecting that if war broke out they would be capable of defending the colony until reinforcements could be mobilised and sent to South Africa by steamship. Some of these troops were diverted while returning to Britain from India, others were sent from garrisons in the Mediterranean and elsewhere. Lieutenant General Sir George White was appointed to command this enlarged force. White was 64 years old, and suffered from a leg injury incurred in a riding accident. Having served mainly in India, he had little previous experience of South Africa.

Contrary to the advice of several British officials such as Sir Alfred Milner, the High Commissioner for Southern Africa, the Boer governments were not over-awed by the despatch of British troops to Natal. Instead, they regarded it as evidence of Britain's determination to seize control of the Boer republics. The Transvaal government under President Paul Kruger considered launching an attack in September, but President Steyn of the Orange Free State, who would later become the spiritual heart of the Boer resistance, dissuaded them for several weeks while he tried to act as intermediary. With the complete breakdown in negotiations, both republics declared war and attacked on 12 October.

A total of 21,000 Boers advanced into Natal from all sides. White had been advised to deploy his force far back, well clear of the area of northern Natal known as the "Natal Triangle", a wedge of land lying between the two Boer republics. Instead, White deployed his forces around the garrison town of Ladysmith, with a detachment even further forward at Dundee. The entire British force could concentrate only after fighting two battles at Talana Hill and Elandslaagte. As the Boers surrounded Ladysmith, White ordered a sortie by his entire force to capture the Boer artillery. The result was the disastrous Battle of Ladysmith, in which the British were driven back into the town having lost 1,200 men killed, wounded or captured.

The Boers then proceeded to surround Ladysmith and cut the railway link to Durban. Major General French and his Chief of Staff, Major Douglas Haig escaped on the last train to leave, which was riddled with bullets.

This town was then besieged for 118 days. White knew that large reinforcements were arriving, and could communicate with British units south of the Tugela River by searchlight and heliograph. He expected relief soon. Meanwhile, his troops carried out several raids and sorties to sabotage Boer artillery.

Louis Botha commanded the Boer detachment which first raided Southern Natal, and then dug in north of the Tugela to hold off the relief force. On 15 December, the first relief attempt was defeated at the Battle of Colenso. Temporarily unnerved, the relief force commander, General Buller, suggested that White either break out or destroy his stores and ammunition and surrender. White could not break out because his horses and draught animals were weak from lack of grazing and forage, but also refused to surrender.

While Buller made repeated attempts to fight his way across the Tugela, the defenders of Ladysmith suffered increasingly from shortage of food and other supplies, and from disease, mainly enteric fever or typhoid, which claimed among many others, the life of noted war correspondent G.W. Steevens. The Boers had long before captured Ladysmith's water supply, and the defenders could use only the polluted[citation needed] Klip River. The situation was reportedly made worse by maladministration and embezzlement by senior medical and supply officers.[citation needed]

Towards the end of the siege, the garrison and townsfolk were living largely on their remaining draught oxen and horses (mainly in the form of "chevril", a meat paste named after the commercial beef extract "Bovril").

Eventually, Buller broke through the Boer positions on 27 February. Following their succession of reverses, his troops had developed effective tactics based on close cooperation between the infantry and artillery. After the protracted struggle, the morale of Botha's men at last broke and they and the besiegers retreated, covered by another huge thunderstorm. Buller did not pursue, and White's men were too weak to do so.

The first party of the relief column, under Major Hubert Gough and which Churchill claims to have been a part of, rode in on the evening of 28 February. White reportedly greeted them saying, "Thank God we kept the flag flying"

February 28 in History

* 202 BC – coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place, initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty's rule over China
* 870 – The Fourth Council of Constantinople closes.
* 1638 – The Scottish National Covenant is signed in Edinburgh.
* 1700 – Today is followed by March 1 in Sweden, thus creating the Swedish calendar.
* 1710 – In the Battle of Helsingborg, 14,000 Danish invaders under Jørgen Rantzau are decisively defeated by an equally sized Swedish force under Magnus Stenbock.
* 1784 – John Wesley charters the Methodist Church.
* 1811 – Cry of Asencio, begin of the Uruguayan War of Independence
* 1827 – The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad is incorporated, becoming the first railroad in America offering commercial transportation of both people and freight.
* 1838 – Robert Nelson, leader of the Patriotes, proclaims the independence of Lower Canada (today Quebec)
* 1844 – A gun on USS Princeton explodes while the boat is on a Potomac River cruise, killing eight people, including two United States Cabinet members.
* 1849 – Regular steamboat service from the west to the east coast of the United States begins with the arrival of the SS California in San Francisco Bay, 4 months 22 days after leaving New York Harbor.
* 1854 – The Republican Party of the United States is organized in Ripon, Wisconsin.
* 1870 – The Bulgarian Exarchate is established by decree of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz of the Ottoman Empire.
* 1883 – The first vaudeville theater opens in Boston, Massachusetts.
* 1885 – The American Telephone and Telegraph Company is incorporated in New York State as the subsidiary of American Bell Telephone. (American Bell would later merge with its subsidiary.)
* 1893 – The USS Indiana, the lead ship of her class and the first battleship in the United States Navy comparable to foreign battleships of the time, is launched.
* 1897 – Queen Ranavalona III, the last monarch of Madagascar, is deposed by a French military force.
* 1900 – The Second Boer War: The 118-day "Siege of Ladysmith" is lifted.
* 1914 – The Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus is proclaimed in Gjirokastër, by the Greeks living in southern Albania.
* 1922 – The United Kingdom ends its protectorate over Egypt through a Unilateral Declaration of Independence.
* 1928 – C.V. Raman discovers Raman effect.
* 1933 – Gleichschaltung: The Reichstag Fire Decree is passed in Germany a day after the Reichstag fire.
* 1935 – DuPont scientist Wallace Carothers invents nylon.
* 1939 – The erroneous word "dord" is discovered in the Webster's New International Dictionary, Second Edition, prompting an investigation.
* 1940 – Basketball is televised for the first time (Fordham University vs. the University of Pittsburgh in Madison Square Garden).
* 1942 – The heavy cruiser USS Houston is sunk in the Battle of Sunda Strait with 693 crew members killed, along with HMAS Perth which lost 375 men.
* 1947 – 228 Incident: In Taiwan, civil disorder is put down with the loss of 30,000 civilian lives.
* 1953 – James D. Watson and Francis Crick announce to friends that they have determined the chemical structure of DNA; the formal announcement takes place on April 25 following publication in April's Nature (pub. April 2).
* 1954 – The first color television sets using the NTSC standard are offered for sale to the general public.
* 1958 – A school bus in Floyd County, Kentucky hits a wrecker truck and plunges down an embankment into the rain-swollen Levisa Fork River. The driver and 26 children die in what remains the worst school bus accident in U.S. history.
* 1959 – Discoverer 1, an American spy satellite that is the first object to achieve a polar orbit, is launched.
* 1972 – Sino-American relations: The United States and People's Republic of China sign the Shanghai Communiqué.
* 1975 – A major tube train crash at Moorgate station, London kills 43 people.
* 1980 – Andalusia approves its statute of autonomy through a referendum.
* 1985 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army carries out a mortar attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary police station at Newry, killing nine officers in the highest loss of life for the RUC on a single day.
* 1986 – Olof Palme, Prime Minister of Sweden, is assassinated in Stockholm.
* 1991 – The first Gulf War ends.
* 1993 – Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents raid the Branch Davidian church in Waco, Texas with a warrant to arrest the group's leader David Koresh. Four BATF agents and five Davidians die in the initial raid, starting a 51-day standoff.
* 1997 – An earthquake of magnitude 6.1 in Armenia and Azerbaijan kills around 1,100 people
* 1997 – An earthquake in northern Iran is responsible for about 3,000 deaths.
* 1997 – The North Hollywood shootout takes place, resulting in the injury of 19 people and the deaths of both perpetrators.
* 1997 – GRB 970228, a highly luminous flash of gamma rays, strikes the Earth for 80 seconds, providing early evidence that gamma-ray bursts occur well beyond the Milky Way.
* 1998 – First flight of RQ-4 Global Hawk, the first unmanned aerial vehicle certified to file its own flight plans and fly regularly in U.S. civilian airspace.
* 1998 – Kosovo War: Serbian police begin the offensive against the Kosovo Liberation Army in Kosovo.
* 2001 – The Nisqually Earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter Scale hits the Nisqually Valley and the Seattle, Tacoma, and Olympia area of the U.S. state of Washington.
* 2001 – Six passengers and four railway staff are killed and a further 82 people suffer serious injuries in the Selby rail crash.
* 2004 – Over 1 million Taiwanese participating in the 228 Hand-in-Hand Rally form a 500-kilometre (310 mi) long human chain to commemorate the 228 Incident in 1947
* 2005 – A suicide bombing at a police recruiting centre in Al Hillah, Iraq kills 127.

February 28 Birthdays

* 1155 – Henry the Young King, son of Henry II of England (d. 1183)
* 1261 – Margaret of Scotland, queen of Norway (d. 1283)
* 1533 – Michel de Montaigne, French writer (d. 1592)
* 1552 – Joost Bürgi, Swiss clockmaker (d. 1632)
* 1573 – Elias Holl, German Architect (d. 1646)
* 1612 – John Pearson, English theologian (d. 1686)
* 1616 – Kaspar Förster, German singer and composer (d. 1673)
* 1619 – Giuseppe Felice Tosi, singer, organist and composer (d. 1693)
* 1670 – Benjamin Wadsworth, American President of Harvard University (d. 1737)
* 1675 – Guillaume Delisle, French cartographer (d. 1726)
* 1683 – René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, French scientist (d. 1757)
* 1704 – Louis Godin, French astronomer (d. 1760)
* 1712 – Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, French military commander (d. 1759)
* 1724 – George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend, British field marshal (d. 1807)
* 1812 – Berthold Auerbach, German poet and author (d. 1882)
* 1820 – John Tenniel, English illustrator (d. 1914)
* 1823 – Ernest Renan, French philosopher (d. 1892)
* 1824 – Blondin, French tightrope walker (d. 1897)
* 1833 – Alfred von Schlieffen, German field marshal (d. 1913)
* 1838 – Maurice Lévy, French engineer (d. 1910)
* 1840 – Henri Duveyrier, French explorer (d. 1892)
* 1841 – Adrien Albert Marie de Mun, French politician (d. 1914)
* 1851 – Samuel W. McCall, 47th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1923)
* 1865 – Wilfred Grenfell, medical missionary (d. 1940)
* 1878 – Pierre Fatou, French mathematician (d. 1929)
* 1878 – Artur Kapp, Estonian composer (d. 1952)
* 1882 – Pádraic Ó Conaire, Irish writer (d. 1928)
* 1882 – Geraldine Farrar, American soprano (d. 1967)
* 1882 – José Vasconcelos, Mexican writer (d. 1959)
* 1893 – Ivan Vasilyov, Bulgarian architect (d. 1979)
* 1894 – Ben Hecht, American playwright (d. 1964)
* 1895 – Marcel Pagnol, French novelist, playwright and film director (d. 1974)
* 1896 – Philip Showalter Hench, American physician, Nobel laureate (d. 1965)
* 1900 – Wolfram Hirth, German pilot (d. 1959)
* 1901 – Linus Pauling, American chemist and activist, Nobel laureate (d. 1994)
* 1903 – Vincente Minnelli, American film director (d. 1986)
* 1906 – Bugsy Siegel, American gangster (d. 1947)
* 1907 – Milton Caniff, American cartoonist (Terry and the Pirates, Steve Canyon) (d. 1988)
* 1908 – Billie Bird, American actress (d. 2002)
* 1908 – Alexander Golitzen, American art director (d. 2005)
* 1909 – Stephen Spender, English poet (d. 1995)
* 1911 – Otakar Vávra, Czech film director
* 1912 – Clara Petacci, Italian mistress of Benito Mussolini (d. 1945)
* 1915 – Ketti Frings, American playwright and screenwriter (d. 1981)
* 1915 – Peter Medawar, Brazilian-born scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1987)
* 1915 – Zero Mostel, American actor (d. 1977)
* 1916 – Svend Asmussen, Danish jazz violinist
* 1916 – Cesar Climaco, Filipino politician (d. 1984)
* 1917 – Ernesto Alonso, Mexican actor, director, cinematographer, and producer (d. 2007)
* 1918 – Alfred Burke, British actor (d. 2011)
* 1921 – Pierre Clostermann, French World War II pilot (d. 2006)
* 1922 – Joyce Howard, British film actress (d. 2010)
* 1923 – Charles Durning, American actor
* 1926 – Svetlana Alliluyeva, Soviet defector, daughter of Joseph Stalin
* 1925 – Harry H Corbett, English actor (d. 1982)
* 1929 – Hayden Fry, American football coach
* 1929 – Frank Gehry, Canadian-American architect
* 1929 – John Montague, Irish poet
* 1929 – Joseph Rouleau, Canadian bass opera singer
* 1930 – Leon Neil Cooper, American physicist, Nobel laureate
* 1930 – Bruce Dawe, Australian poet
* 1931 – Gavin MacLeod, American actor
* 1931 – Dean Smith, American basketball coach
* 1932 – Don Francks, Canadian actor
* 1933 – Robert Grondelaers, Belgian cyclist (d. 1989)
* 1933 – Miro Steržaj, Slovenian 9-pin bowler
* 1933 – Rein Taagepera, Estonian politician
* 1938 – Foge Fazio, American college football coach (d. 2009)
* 1939 – Chögyam Trungpa, Tibetan Buddhist meditation instructor (d. 1987)
* 1939 – Daniel C. Tsui, Chinese-born physicist, Nobel laureate
* 1939 – Tommy Tune, American dancer
* 1940 – Mario Andretti, Italian-American race car driver
* 1940 – Joe South, American singer
* 1942 – Frank Bonner, American actor
* 1942 – Brian Jones, English musician (The Rolling Stones) (d. 1969)
* 1942 – Dino Zoff, Italian footballer
* 1943 – Barbara Acklin, American soul singer (d. 1998)
* 1943 – Charles Bernstein, American composer
* 1943 – Archbishop Jovan VI of Ohrid, Macedonian cleric
* 1944 – Win Aung, Burmese politician
* 1944 – Kelly Bishop, American actress
* 1944 – Sepp Maier, German footballer
* 1945 – Mimsy Farmer, American actress
* 1945 – Bubba Smith, American football player and actor (d. 2011)
* 1946 – Robin Cook, British politician (d. 2005)
* 1946 – Don Francisco, American singer, songwriter, and musician, specializing in the field of contemporary Christian music
* 1947 – Stephanie Beacham, English actress
* 1948 – Steven Chu, American physicist, Nobel laureate
* 1948 – Mike Figgis, English director
* 1948 – Bernadette Peters, American actress and singer
* 1948 – Mercedes Ruehl, American actress
* 1949 – Ilene Graff, American actress and singer
* 1951 – Bill Cratty, American modern dancer and choreographer (d. 1998)
* 1951 – Jim Wohlford, American baseball player
* 1952 – William Finn, American composer
* 1953 – Ingo Hoffmann, Brazilian racing driver
* 1953 – Paul Krugman, American economist, Nobel laureate
* 1953 – Ricky Steamboat, American professional wrestler
* 1954 – Brian Billick, American football coach
* 1955 – Gilbert Gottfried, American comedian
* 1956 – Adrian Dantley, American basketball player
* 1956 – Jimmy Nicholl, Canadian-born Northern Irish footballer
* 1956 – Mike Tenay, American wrestling commentator
* 1956 – Guy Maddin, Canadian film director
* 1957 – Paul Delph, American musician and producer (d. 1996)
* 1957 – Ainsley Harriott, British celebrity chef
* 1957 – John Turturro, American actor
* 1957 – Cindy Wilson, American singer (The B-52's)
* 1958 – Jack Abramoff, American businessman, political figure and convict
* 1958 – Natalya Estemirova, Russian activist (d. 2009)
* 1958 – Ginette Harrison, British mountaineer (d. 1999)
* 1958 – Jeanne Mas, French singer and actress
* 1958 – David R. Ross, Scottish historian and writer (d. 2010)
* 1960 – Dorothy Stratten, Canadian actress (d. 1980)
* 1961 – Eric Bachelart, Belgian racing driver
* 1961 – Rae Dawn Chong, Canadian actress
* 1961 – Mark Latham, Australian politician
* 1961 – Barry McGuigan, Irish boxer
* 1961 – René Simard, Canadian singer and TV host
* 1963 – Claudio Chiappucci, Italian cyclist
* 1964 – Djamolidine Abdoujaparov, Uzbekistan cyclist
* 1964 – Fernando del Valle, American tenor
* 1964 – Lotta Lotass, Swedish writer
* 1965 – Park Gok-ji, South Korean film editor
* 1966 – Paulo Futre, Portuguese footballer
* 1967 – Colin Cooper, English footballer
* 1968 – Stéphan Lebeau, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1969 – Butch Leitzinger, American race car driver
* 1969 – Robert Sean Leonard, American actor
* 1969 – Patrick Monahan, American singer (Train)
* 1969 – Tor Øivind Ødegård, Norwegian middle distance runner
* 1970 – Daniel Handler, American writer
* 1970 – Noureddine Morceli, Algerian athlete
* 1971 – Maxine Bahns, American actress
* 1971 – Tristan Louis, American writer
* 1971 – Junya Nakano, Japanese composer
* 1971 – Peter Stebbings, Canadian actor
* 1972 – Rory Cochrane, American actor
* 1973 – Eric Lindros, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1973 – Nicolas Minassian, French racing driver
* 1973 – Masato Tanaka, Japanese professional wrestler
* 1974 – Lee Carsley, Irish footballer
* 1974 – Moana Mackey, New Zealand politician
* 1974 – Tangi Miller, American actress
* 1975 – Mike Rucker, American football player
* 1976 – Ali Larter, American actress and model
* 1976 – Guillaume Lemay-Thivierge, Canadian actor
* 1976 – Adam Pine, Australian swimmer
* 1977 – Jason Aldean, American country singer
* 1978 – Jeanne Cherhal, French singer-songwriter
* 1978 – Yasir Hameed, Pakistani cricketer
* 1978 – Benjamin Raich, Austrian skier
* 1978 – Jamaal Tinsley, American basketball player
* 1978 – Mariano Zabaleta, Argentine tennis player
* 1979 – Michael Bisping, English mixed martial artist
* 1979 – Sébastien Bourdais, French racing driver
* 1979 – Ivo Karlović, Croatian tennis player
* 1979 – Primož Peterka, Slovenian ski jumper
* 1980 – Pascal Bosschaart, Dutch footballer
* 1980 – Lucian Bute, Romanian-born Canadian boxer
* 1980 – Piotr Giza, Polish footballer
* 1980 – Christian Poulsen, Danish footballer
* 1980 – Tayshaun Prince, American basketball player
* 1980 – Esquerdinha, Brazilian footballer
* 1981 – Brian Bannister, American baseball player
* 1981 – Florent Serra, French tennis player
* 1982 – Natalia Vodianova, Russian supermodel
* 1984 – Ben Fagan, American musician and reality show contestant
* 1984 – Karolína Kurková, Czech supermodel
* 1984 – Christian Müller, German footballer
* 1985 – Tim Bresnan, British cricketer
* 1985 – Fefe Dobson, Canadian singer
* 1985 – Jelena Janković, Serbian tennis player
* 1985 – Diego Ribas da Cunha, Brazilian footballer
* 1986 – Mark Sztyndera, German rugby player
* 1987 – Antonio Candreva, Italian footballer
* 1988 – Aroldis Chapman, Cuban baseball player
* 1988 – Steeve Gerard Fankà, Cameroonian footballer
* 1988 – Markéta Irglová, Czech songwriter and actress
* 1988 – Maikol Negro, Italian footballer
* 1989 – Charles Jenkins, American basketball player
* 1991 – Sarah Bolger, Irish actress
* 2007 – Princess Lalla Khadija of Morocco

Monday, February 27, 2012

February 27 1560- The Treaty of Berwick signed

The Treaty of Berwick was negotiated on 27 February 1560 at Berwick-upon-Tweed. It was an agreement made by the representative of Queen Elizabeth I of England, the Duke of Norfolk, and the Scottish Lords of the Congregation. The purpose was to agree the terms under which an English fleet and army would come to Scotland to expel the French troops who were defending the Regency of Mary of Guise. The Lords were trying both to expel the French and to effect the Scottish Reformation, and this had led from rioting to armed conflict.

The leader of the Lords of the Congregation was the Duke of Chatelherault. He had formerly been Regent, but in this treaty was described as "second person", meaning that he was heir to the throne after Mary, Queen of Scots. His representatives at Berwick were James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, Patrick, Lord Ruthven, Sir John Maxwell of Terregles, William Maitland younger of Lethington, John Wishart of Pitarro, and Master Henry Balnaves of Halhill. England's representative was Thomas, Duke of Norfolk.

The treaty was effective, the English navy already had a fleet in the Firth of Forth commanded by William Winter, and now an English army under Baron Grey de Wilton marched north from Berwick into Scotland. On 24 March 1560 Elizabeth had a proclamation published and circulated in English, French and Italian, which detailed her concerns over Mary's use of English heraldry and the ambitions of the Guise family. The proclamation stressed that England was not at war with France or Scotland, although Elizabeth had been forced to "put in order, to her great charges, certain forces both by sea and land."

The English force assisted with the Siege of Leith until hostilities ended in July 1560, after the death of Mary of Guise and the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh. Under the terms of the treaty, the French fortifications at Leith, new works at Dunbar Castle and at Eyemouth were demolished and the French and English went home. The religious ambitions of the Scottish lords were realised in the Reformation Parliament of August 1560. This parliament also ratified the treaty; William Maitland commended it and the goodwill and favour of Elizabeth in relieving the extreme necessity and "almost utter ruen of the whole countrie." According to the English observer Randolph, there was common consent and some would have happily signed in their own blood.

John Knox thought the treaty so important in explaining the actions of the Lords of the Congregation to posterity that he inserted the whole text into his History of the Reformation. Knox directly related the treaty to the thinking of his colleague Christopher Goodman in his tract, How Superior Powers Ought to be Obeyed, by writing:

And because we have heard the malicious tongues of wicked men make false report of this our fact, we have faithfully and truly inserted in this our history the said contract, …that memory thereof may bide to our posterity; to the end that they may judge with indifference, whether that we have done anything prejudicial to our commonwealth or yet contrarious unto that debtful obedience which true subjects owe to their superiors…

The modern historian Michael Lynch called the treaty "an astonishing document which mentioned many things but not religion." Pamela Ritchie, historian and author of a political biography of Mary of Guise, sees the treaty as facilitating "the interference of a foreign monarch in what was essentially a domestic crisis."

It was planned at first to hold the meeting for the treaty in Scotland on 25 March 1560, at Aitchison's Haven, the harbour of Newbattle Abbey in East Lothian

February 27 in History

* 380 – Edict of Thessalonica: Emperor Theodosius I, with co-emperors Gratian and Valentinian II, declare their wish that all Roman citizens convert to trinitarian Christianity.
* 425 – The University of Constantinople is founded by Emperor Theodosius II at the urging of his wife Aelia Eudocia.
* 1560 – The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland.
* 1594 – Henry IV is crowned King of France.
* 1617 – Sweden and Russia sign the Treaty of Stolbovo, ending the Ingrian War and shutting Russia out of the Baltic Sea.
* 1626 – Yuan Chonghuan is appointed Governor of Liaodong, after he led the Chinese into a great victory against the Manchurians under Nurhaci.
* 1700 – The island of New Britain is discovered.
* 1776 – American Revolutionary War: the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge in North Carolina breaks up a Loyalist militia.
* 1801 – Pursuant to the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801, Washington, D.C. is placed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress.
* 1812 – Manuel Belgrano raises the Flag of Argentina in the city of Rosario for the first time.
* 1812 – Poet Lord Byron gives his first address as a member of the House of Lords, in defense of Luddite violence against Industrialism in his home county of Nottinghamshire.
* 1844 – The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti.
* 1860 – Abraham Lincoln makes a speech at Cooper Union in the city of New York that is largely responsible for his election to the Presidency.
* 1861 – Russian troops fire on a crowd in Warsaw protesting against Russian rule over Poland, killing five protesters.
* 1864 – American Civil War: The first Northern prisoners arrive at the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Georgia.
* 1870 – The current flag of Japan is first adopted as the national flag for Japanese merchant ships.
* 1900 – Second Boer War: In South Africa, British military leaders receive an unconditional notice of surrender from Boer General Piet Cronje at the Battle of Paardeberg.
* 1900 – The British Labour Party is founded.
* 1902 – Second Boer War: Harry 'Breaker' Harbord Morant is executed in Pretoria.
* 1921 – The International Working Union of Socialist Parties is founded in Vienna.
* 1922 – A challenge to the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, allowing women the right to vote, is rebuffed by the Supreme Court of the United States in Leser v. Garnett.
* 1933 – Reichstag fire: Germany's parliament building in Berlin, the Reichstag, is set on fire.
* 1939 – United States labor law: The U.S. Supreme Court rules that sit-down strikes violate property owners' rights and are therefore illegal.
* 1940 – Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discover carbon-14
* 1942 – World War II: During the Battle of the Java Sea, an allied strike force is defeated by a Japanese task force in the Java Sea in the Dutch East Indies
* 1943 – The Smith Mine #3 in Bearcreek, Montana, explodes, killing 74 men.
* 1943 – The Rosenstrasse protest starts in Berlin
* 1951 – The Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, limiting Presidents to two terms, is ratified.
* 1955 – Soviet Union regional elections, 1955.
* 1961 – The first congress of the Spanish Trade Union Organisation is inaugurated.
* 1963 – The Dominican Republic receives its first democratically elected president, Juan Bosch, since the end of the dictatorship led by Rafael Trujillo.
* 1964 – The government of Italy asks for help to keep the Leaning Tower of Pisa from toppling over.
* 1971 – Doctors in the first Dutch abortion clinic (the Mildredhuis in Arnhem) start to perform aborti provocati.
* 1973 – The American Indian Movement occupies Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
* 1976 – The formerly Spanish territory of Western Sahara, under the auspices of the Polisario Front declares independence as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
* 1986 – The United States Senate allows its debates to be televised on a trial basis.
* 1989 – Venezuela is rocked by the Caracazo riots.
* 1991 – Gulf War: U.S. President George H. W. Bush announces that "Kuwait is liberated".
* 2002 – Ryanair Flight 296 catches fire at London Stansted Airport. Subsequent investigations criticize Ryanair's handling of the evacuation.
* 2002 – Godhra train burning: a Muslim mob kills 59 Hindu pilgrims returning from Ayodhya;
* 2004 – A bombing of a Superferry by Abu Sayyaf in the Philippines' worst terrorist attack kills 116.
* 2004 – The initial version of the John Jay Report, with details about the Catholic sexual abuse scandal in the United States, is released.
* 2007 – The Chinese Correction: the Shanghai Stock Exchange falls 9%, the largest drop in 10 years.
* 2010 – An earthquake measuring 8.8 on the Richter scale strikes central parts of Chile leaving over 500 victims, and thousands injured. The quake triggered a tsunami which struck Hawaii shortly after.

February 27 Birthdays

* 272 – Constantine the Great, Roman emperor (d. 337)
* 1689 – Pietro Gnocchi, Italian composer, choir director, historian, and geographer (d. 1775)
* 1691 – Edward Cave, English editor and publisher (d. 1754)
* 1711 – Constantine Mavrocordatos, Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldavia (d. 1769)
* 1779 – Thomas Hazlehurst, English soap and alkali manufacturer (d. 1842)
* 1789 – Manuel Rodríguez, Chilean lawyer and guerrilla leader, considered one of the founders of independent Chile (d. 1818)
* 1807 – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, American poet (d. 1882)
* 1831 – Hiram Bond Everest, American co-founder of The Vacuum Oil Company (d. 1913)
* 1847 – Ellen Terry, English actress (d.1928)
* 1848 – Hubert Parry, English composer (d. 1918)
* 1867 – Irving Fisher, American economist (d. 1947)
* 1862 – Anastasios Metaxas, Greek architect and shooter (d. 1937)
* 1875 – George Rodocanachi, Greek-British physician (d. 1944)
* 1877 – Walter Briggs, Sr., American entrepreneur and sports team owner (d. 1952)
* 1877 – Adela Verne, English pianist (d. 1952)
* 1878 – Alvan T. Fuller, 50th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1958)
* 1879 – René Lefebvre, martyr of the French Resistance (d. 1944)
* 1886 – Hugo Black, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1971)
* 1888 – Roberto Assagioli, Italian psychiatrist (d. 1974)
* 1888 – Earl Caddock, American professional wrestler (d. 1950)
* 1888 – Lotte Lehmann, German singer (d. 1976)
* 1890 – Freddie Keppard, American jazz musician (d. 1933)
* 1891 – Anne Samson, oldest-ever nun documented (d. 2004)
* 1891 – David Sarnoff, Russian-born broadcast pioneer (d. 1971)
* 1892 – William Demarest, American actor (d. 1983)
* 1895 – Miyagiyama Fukumatsu, Japanese sumo wrestler, the 29th Yokozuna (d. 1943)
* 1897 – Marian Anderson, American contralto (d. 1993)
* 1899 – Charles Best, Canadian medical scientist (d. 1978)
* 1902 – Gene Sarazen, American golfer (d. 1999)
* 1902 – John Steinbeck, American writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1968)
* 1903 – Grethe Weiser, German actress (d. 1970)
* 1904 – James T. Farrell, American writer (d. 1979)
* 1904 – Chick Fullis, American baseball player (d. 1946)
* 1904 – Yulii Borisovich Khariton, Russian physicist (d. 1996)
* 1904 – André Leducq, French cyclist (d. 1980)
* 1905 – Franchot Tone, American actor (d. 1968)
* 1907 – Mildred Bailey, American singer (d. 1951)
* 1907 – Walter Wolf, German politician (d. 1977)
* 1910 – Joan Bennett, American actress (d. 1990)
* 1910 – Peter De Vries, American writer (d. 1993)
* 1910 – Genrikh Gasparyan, Armenian chess player and composer (d. 1995)
* 1910 – Ted Horn, American race car driver (d. 1948)
* 1910 – Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, American aircraft engineer (Lockheed Skunk Works) (d. 1990)
* 1911 – Oscar Heidenstam, British bodybuilding champion (d. 1991)
* 1912 – Lawrence Durrell, British writer (d. 1990)
* 1912 – Kusumagraj,Vishnu Vāman Shirwādkar, Indian writer (d. 1999)
* 1913 – Paul Ricoeur, French philosopher (d. 2005)
* 1913 – Kazimierz Sabbat, Polish president (d. 1989)
* 1913 – Irwin Shaw, American writer (d. 1984)
* 1917 – John Connally, American politician, 55th United States Secretary of the Navy, 39th Governor of Texas, and 61st United States Secretary of Treasury (d. 1993)
* 1921 – Theodore Van Kirk, American navigator of the Enola Gay
* 1922 – Hans Rookmaaker, Dutch professor and art historian (d. 1977)
* 1923 – Dexter Gordon, American jazz saxophonist (d. 1990)
* 1925 – Samuel Dash, American Congressional counsel (d. 2004)
* 1926 – David H. Hubel, Canadian neuroscientist, Nobel Prize laureate
* 1927 – Lynn Cartwright, American actress (d. 2004)
* 1927 – Guy Mitchell, American singer (d. 1999)
* 1929 – Jack Gibson, Australian rugby league footballer and coach (d. 2008)
* 1929 – Djalma Santos, Brazilian footballer
* 1930 – Paul von Ragué Schleyer, American chemist
* 1930 – Peter Stone, American writer (d. 2003)
* 1930 – Joanne Woodward, American actress
* 1932 – Elizabeth Taylor, British-American actress (d.2011)
* 1933 – Raymond Berry, American football player
* 1934 – Vincent Fourcade, French interior designer (d. 1992)
* 1934 – N. Scott Momaday, American writer
* 1934 – Ralph Nader, American author, activist and political figure
* 1934 – Van Williams, American actor
* 1935 – Mirella Freni, Italian soprano
* 1954 – Uri Shulevitz, American author and illustrator
* 1936 – Ron Barassi, Australian rules footballer
* 1936 – Roger Mahony, fourth Archbishop of Los Angeles
* 1937 – David Ackles, American singer songwriter (d. 1999)
* 1937 – Barbara Babcock, American actress
* 1938 – Jake Thackray, Engish singer-songwriter (d. 2002)
* 1939 – Peter Revson, American racecar driver (d. 1974)
* 1940 – Howard Hesseman, American actor
* 1940 – Bill Hunter, Australian actor
* 1941 – Paddy Ashdown, British politician
* 1942 – Robert H. Grubbs, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
* 1942 – Charlayne Hunter-Gault, American journalist
* 1942 – Michel Forget, Canadian actor
* 1943 – Mary Frann, American actress (d. 1998)
* 1943 – Morten Lauridsen, American composer
* 1944 – Ken Grimwood, American writer (d. 2003)
* 1944 – Graeme Pollock, South African cricketer
* 1944 – Roger Scruton, British philosopher
* 1945 – Carl Anderson, American singer and actor (d. 2004)
* 1947 – Alan Guth, American theoretical physicist and cosmologist
* 1947 – Gidon Kremer, Latvian violinist
* 1949 – Rosalinda Galli, Italian voice actress
* 1950 – Julia Neuberger, British rabbi and politician
* 1951 – Lee Atwater, American political figure (d. 1991)
* 1951 – Steve Harley, British rock musician (Steve Harley and Cockney Rebel)
* 1952 – Stathis Psaltis, Greek actor
* 1953 – Gabriela Svobodová, Czech cross country skier
* 1954 – Neal Schon, American musician (Journey)
* 1955 – Peter Christopherson, English musician and video director
* 1957 – Danny Antonucci, Canadian animator
* 1957 – Viktor Markin, Russian athlete
* 1957 – Adrian Smith, English musician (Iron Maiden)
* 1957 – Timothy Spall, English actor
* 1958 – Naas Botha, South African rugby union footballer
* 1958 – Nancy Spungen, American murder victim (d. 1978)
* 1959 – Johnny Van Zant, American singer (Lynyrd Skynyrd)
* 1960 – Andrés Gómez, Ecuadorian tennis player
* 1961 – James Worthy, American basketball player
* 1962 – Adam Baldwin, American actor
* 1962 – Grant Show, American actor
* 1963 – Pär Nuder, Swedish politician
* 1964 – Todd Bodine, American race car driver
* 1965 – Noah Emmerich, American actor
* 1965 – Joakim Sundström, Swedish sound editor and sound designer
* 1965 – Frank Peter Zimmermann, German violinist
* 1966 – Donal Logue, Canadian actor
* 1968 – Matt Stairs, Canadian baseball player
* 1969 – Brad Vander Ark, American musician
* 1970 – Michael A. Burstein, American writer
* 1970 – Kent Desormeaux, American jockey
* 1970 – Matthias Lechner, German art director
* 1970 – Patricia Petibon, French opera singer
* 1971 – Derren Brown, British psychological illusionist
* 1971 – Paul Hudson, BBC Look North Weatherman.
* 1971 – "Chilli" Thomas, American singer (TLC)
* 1972 – Jennifer Lyon, American reality television personality (Survivor: Palau) (d. 2010)
* 1973 – Peter André, Australian singer
* 1973 – Ali Tabatabaee, American Iranian rapper (Zebrahead)
* 1973 – Mark Taylor, Welsh rugby union footballer
* 1974 – Colin Edwards, American motorcycle racer
* 1974 – Carte Goodwin, American politician, junior senator of West Virginia
* 1975 – Prodromos Korkizoglou, Greek decathlete
* 1975 – Shelby Walker, American mixed martial artist (d. 2006)
* 1976 – Tony Gonzalez, American football player
* 1977 – Lance Hoyt, American professional wrestler
* 1977 – Ji Sung, South Korean actor
* 1977 – James Wan, Australian film director
* 1978 – James Beattie, English footballer
* 1980 – Bobby V, American singer
* 1980 – Brandon Beemer, American actor
* 1980 – Chelsea Clinton, daughter of Bill and Hillary Clinton
* 1980 – Scott Prince, Australian Rugby League Player
* 1981 – Josh Groban, American singer
* 1981 – Cameron Ling, Australian Rules footballer
* 1981 – Élodie Ouédraogo, Belgian athlete
* 1983 – Duje Draganja, Croatian swimmer
* 1983 – Devin Harris, American basketball player
* 1983 – Kate Mara, American actress
* 1983 – Hayley Angel Wardle, English actress
* 1984 – David Noel, American basketball player
* 1984 – Lotta Schelin, Swedish female footballer
* 1984 – Antti Tuisku, Finnish singer
* 1985 – Diniyar Bilyaletdinov, Russian footballer
* 1985 – Braydon Coburn, Canadian hockey player
* 1986 – Yovani Gallardo, American baseball player
* 1986 – Jonathan Moreira, Brazilian footballer
* 1988 – Dustin Jeffrey, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1989 – Shota Shimizu, Japanese musician
* 1989 – Stefano Langone, American Idol season 10 contestant
* 1989 – David Button, English footballer
* 1991 – Azeem Rafiq, Pakistani cricketer
* 1992 – Jonjo Shelvey, English footballer
* 1994 – Hou Yifan, Chinese chess player

Sunday, February 26, 2012

February 26 1917- The first Jazz recording, Livery Stable Blues, is released

"Livery Stable Blues" is a 1917 jazz composition copyrighted by Ray Lopez and Alcide Nunez. It was famously recorded by the Original Dixieland Jass Band on 26 February 1917 and, with the flip side "Dixie Jass Band One-Step" (a tune later better known as "Original Dixieland One-step"), became the first jazz recording ever released.
Victor release of "Livery Stable Blues", 18255-B, 1917.

The Original Dixieland Jazz Band recording was featured on Ken Burns Jazz: The Story of America's Music soundtrack collection.

The Original Dixieland Jass Band was a group of white musicians from New Orleans. They had gained popularity playing at Schiller's Cafe in Chicago and Reisenweber's Restaurant in New York City, and became largely responsible for making the New Orleans style popular on a national level.

The ODJB made test recordings for Columbia on 30 January 1917, but no usable recordings resulted. On 26 February the ODJB recorded "Livery Stable Blues" for the Victor label. "Dixie Jass Band One-Step" was recorded in the same session. Victor executives quickly released the record, which became an instant hit.

The record was a big hit, and was possibly the first popular music recording to sell a million copies. It established jazz as popular music and spawned demand for small jazz bands in New York and Chicago, at a time when it was getting harder and harder for musicians to find employment in New Orleans.

Both sides of the record were originally labeled as compositions by members of the band. However two other New Orleans musicians, Nunez and Lopez, beat the ODJB in registering a copyright on the tune. Alcide Nunez had been clarinetist with the ODJB until a few months earlier. Trumpeter Ray Lopez had worked with most of the ODJB musicians in New Orleans, especially in the bands of Papa Jack Laine. The members of the ODJB published the piece copyrighted as their own composition under the alternative title "Barnyard Blues". The two parties and their respective publishers sued each other. The case was thrown out without a decision rendered, as the conflicting claims could not be sorted out and the judge expressed doubt that musicians unable to read or write music could be said to have "composed" anything.

Meanwhile, a second lawsuit arose from one of the strains of "Dixie Jass Band One-Step" being almost identical to the 1909 Joe Jordan number "That Teasin' Rag". Later pressings of the record added Jordan as co-composer and he was awarded a share of the royalties.

After Victor's release became a hit, Columbia had the group back to record again, and released their recording of "Home Again in Indiana" backed by "At the Darktown Strutters Ball". Columbia selected two Tin Pan Alley tunes of the day for the band to record, probably to avoid the copyright problems which surfaced over both sides of the band's supposed original compositions for Victor.

February 26 in History

* 747 BCE – Epoch (origin) of Ptolemy's Nabonassar Era.
* 364 – Valentinian I is proclaimed Roman Emperor.
* 1266 – Battle of Benevento: An army led by Charles, Count of Anjou, defeats a combined German and Sicilian force led by King Manfred of Sicily. Manfred is killed in the battle and Pope Clement IV invests Charles as king of Sicily and Naples.
* 1658 – Treaty of Roskilde: After a devastating defeat in the Northern Wars (1655–1661), the King of Denmark-Norway is forced to give up nearly half his territory to Sweden to save the rest.
* 1794 – The first Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen burns down.
* 1815 – Napoleon Bonaparte escapes from Elba.
* 1876 – Japan and Korea sign a treaty granting Japanese citizens extraterritoriality rights, opening three ports to Japanese trade, and ending Korea's status as a tributary state of Qing Dynasty China.
* 1909 – Kinemacolor, the first successful color motion picture process, is first shown to the general public at the Palace Theatre in London.
* 1914 – HMHS Britannic, sister to the RMS Titanic, is launched at Harland & Wolff shipyard in Belfast.
* 1917 – The Original Dixieland Jass Band records the first jazz record, for the Victor Talking Machine Company in New York.
* 1919 – President Woodrow Wilson signs an act of the U.S. Congress establishing most of the Grand Canyon as a United States National Park (see Grand Canyon National Park).
* 1920 – The first German Expressionist film and early horror movie, Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, premièred in Berlin.
* 1929 – President Calvin Coolidge signs an Executive Order establishing the 96,000 acre Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming.
* 1935 – Adolf Hitler orders the Luftwaffe to be re-formed, violating the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles.
* 1935 – Robert Watson-Watt carries out a demonstration near Daventry which leads directly to the development of RADAR in the United Kingdom.
* 1936 – In the February 26 Incident, young Japanese military officers attempt to stage a coup against the government.
* 1946 – Finnish observers report the first of many thousands of sightings of ghost rockets.
* 1952 – Vincent Massey is sworn in as the first Canadian-born Governor-General of Canada.
* 1960 – A New York bound Alitalia airliner crashed into a cemetery at Shannon, Ireland, shortly after takeoff, killing 34 of the 52 persons on board.
* 1961 – Hassan II becomes King of Morocco.
* 1966 – Apollo Program: Launch of AS-201, the first flight of the Saturn IB rocket
* 1966 – Vietnam War: The ROK Capital Division of the South Korean Army massacres 380 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam.
* 1971 – U.N. Secretary General U Thant signs United Nations proclamation of the vernal equinox as Earth Day.
* 1972 – The Buffalo Creek Flood caused by a burst dam kills 125 in West Virginia.
* 1980 – Egypt and Israel establish full diplomatic relations.
* 1987 – Iran-Contra affair: The Tower Commission rebukes President Ronald Reagan for not controlling his national security staff.
* 1991 – Gulf War: United States Army forces capture the town of Al Busayyah.
* 1992 – Nagorno-Karabakh War: Khojaly Massacre: Armenian armed forces open fire on Azeri civilians at a military post outside the town of Khojaly leaving hundreds dead.
* 1993 – World Trade Center bombing: In New York City, a truck bomb parked below the North Tower of the World Trade Center explodes, killing 6 and injuring over a thousand.
* 1995 – The United Kingdom's oldest investment banking institute, Barings Bank, collapses after a securities broker, Nick Leeson, loses $1.4 billion by speculating on the Singapore International Monetary Exchange using futures contracts.
* 2004 – Republic of Macedonia President Boris Trajkovski is killed in a plane crash near Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

February 26 Birthdays

* 1361 – Wenceslaus, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (d. 1419)
* 1564 – Christopher Marlowe, English dramatist (d. 1593)
* 1587 – Stefano Landi, Italian composer (d. 1639)
* 1671 – Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician and philosopher (d. 1713)
* 1672 – Antoine Augustine Calmet, French theologian (d. 1757)
* 1677 – Nicola Fago, Italian Baroque composer and teacher (d. 1745)
* 1714 – James Hervey, English clergyman and writer (d. 1758)
* 1715 – Claude Adrien Helvétius, French philosopher (d. 1771)
* 1720 – Gian Francesco Albani, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1803)
* 1732 – Francis Marion, American Revolutionary War officer (d. 1795)
* 1740 – Giambattista Bodoni, Italian publisher and engraver (d. 1813)
* 1746 – Archduchess Marie Amalie of Austria, duchess of Piacenza (d. 1806)
* 1786 – François Jean Dominique Arago, French mathematician (d. 1853)
* 1799 – Émile Clapeyron, French engineer and physicist (d. 1864)
* 1802 – Victor Hugo, French writer (d. 1885)
* 1808 – Honoré Daumier, French painter, illustrator, and sculptor (d. 1879)
* 1808 – Nathan Kelley,American architect, active mainly in Ohio, (d. 1871)
* 1814 – Charles Joseph Sainte-Claire Deville, French geologist (d. 1876)
* 1829 – Levi Strauss, German-born clothing designer (d. 1902)
* 1846 – William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody, American frontiersman (d. 1917)
* 1852 – John Harvey Kellogg, American surgeon, advocate of dietary reform (d. 1943)
* 1857 – Émile Coué, French psychologist (d. 1926)
* 1858 – Vladimir Serbsky, Russian psychiatrist (d. 1917)
* 1861 – King Ferdinand of Bulgaria (d. 1948)
* 1861 – Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya, Russian revolutionary, widow of Vladimir Lenin (d. 1939)
* 1866 – Herbert Henry Dow, American chemical industrialist (d. 1930)
* 1879 – Frank Bridge, English composer (d. 1941)
* 1882 – Husband E. Kimmel, American admiral (d. 1968)
* 1885 – Aleksandras Stulginskis, President of Lithuania (d. 1969)
* 1887 – Grover Cleveland Alexander, American baseball player (d. 1950)
* 1887 – William Frawley, American actor (d. 1966)
* 1887 – Stefan Grabinski, Polish writer (d. 1936)
* 1893 – I. A. Richards, English literary critic (d. 1979)
* 1896 – Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov, Soviet politician and art ideologist (d. 1948)
* 1899 – Max Petitpierre, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1994)
* 1900 – Fritz Wiessner, American mountaineer of German descent (d. 1988)
* 1901 – Dwight Wilson, Canadian Soldier (d. 2007)
* 1902 – Jean Bruller, alias Vercors, French writer and illustrator (d. 1991)
* 1903 – Giulio Natta, Italian chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1979)
* 1903 – Orde Charles Wingate, British Major-General, prominent Zionist, eccentric (d. 1944)
* 1906 – Madeleine Carroll, English actress (d. 1987)
* 1907 – Dub Taylor, American actor (d. 1994)
* 1908 – Tex Avery, American cartoonist (d. 1980)
* 1908 – Leela Majumdar, Bengali writer (d. 2007)
* 1908 – Jean-Pierre Wimille, French race car driver (d. 1949)
* 1909 – Fanny Cradock, English food writer and broadcaster (d. 1994)
* 1909 – King Talal of Jordan (d. 1972)
* 1911 – Tarō Okamoto, Japanese avant-garde artist (d. 1996)
* 1912 – Dane Clark, American actor (d. 1998)
* 1913 – George Barker, English poet (d. 1991)
* 1914 – Robert Alda, American actor (d. 1986)
* 1916 – Jackie Gleason, American actor, writer, composer, and comedian (d. 1987)
* 1918 – Otis Ray Bowen, American physician & politician, 44th Governor of Indiana, and 16th United States Secretary of Health and Human Services
* 1918 – Theodore Sturgeon, American writer (d. 1985)
* 1919 – Mason Adams, American actor (d. 2005)
* 1919 – Rie Mastenbroek, Dutch swimmer (d. 2003)
* 1920 – Danny Gardella, American baseball player (d. 2005)
* 1920 – Tony Randall, American actor (d. 2004)
* 1920 – Lucjan Wolanowski, Polish journalist, writer and traveller (d. 2006)
* 1921 – Betty Hutton, American actress and singer (d. 2007)
* 1922 – Margaret Leighton, British actress (d. 1976)
* 1922 – Karl Aage Præst, Danish football player
* 1924 – Noboru Takeshita, Japanese politician (d. 2000)
* 1926 – Verne Gagne, American wrestler
* 1926 – Miroslava, Mexican actress (d. 1955)
* 1926 – H.M., Henry Gustav Molaison, the amnesiac patient (d. 2008)
* 1926 – Doris Belack, American actress (d. 2011)
* 1927 – Tom Kennedy, American game show host
* 1928 – Fats Domino, American musician
* 1928 – Anatoly Filipchenko, Soviet cosmonaut
* 1928 – Monique Leyrac, Canadian singer and actress
* 1928 – Ariel Sharon, 11th Prime Minister of Israel (2001–2006)
* 1930 – Lazar Berman, Russian pianist (d. 2005)
* 1931 – Ally MacLeod, Scottish footballer and manager (d. 2004)
* 1931 – Robert Novak, American political columnist (d. 2009)
* 1932 – Johnny Cash, American musician (d. 2003)
* 1933 – James Goldsmith, Anglo-French businessman (d. 1997)
* 1936 – Adem Demaçi, Albanian politician
* 1937 – Hagood Hardy, Canadian musician and composer (d. 1997)
* 1937 – Paul Dickson, American football player and coach (d. 2011)
* 1938 – Evagoras Pallikarides, Cypriot guerilla (d. 1957)
* 1939 – Josephine Tewson, English actress
* 1941 – Tony Ray-Jones, British photographer (d. 1972)
* 1943 – Bill Duke, American actor and director
* 1943 – Dante Ferretti, Italian art director and costume designer
* 1944 – Ronald Lauder, American philanthropist and president of the World Jewish Congress
* 1945 – Peter Brock, Australian motorsports champion (d. 2006)
* 1945 – Bob Hite, American singer and harmonicist (Canned Heat) (d. 1981)
* 1945 – Giannis Ioannidis, Greek basketball coach and politician
* 1945 – Marta Kristen, Norwegian actress
* 1945 – Mitch Ryder, American musician (The Detroit Wheels)
* 1946 – Ahmed H. Zewail, Egyptian chemist, Nobel laureate
* 1947 – Sandie Shaw, English singer
* 1948 – Sharyn McCrumb, American writer
* 1949 – Elizabeth George, American novelist
* 1949 – Emma Kirkby, British singer
* 1950 – Jonathan Cain, American musician (Journey, Bad English, The Babys)
* 1950 – Helen Clark, New Zealand politician, Prime Minister (1999–2008)
* 1953 – Michael Bolton, American singer
* 1954 – Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Turkish politician, Prime Minister (2003–present)
* 1954 – Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, heir to the deposed Kingdom of Hanover and husband of Princess Caroline of Monaco
* 1955 – Andreas Maislinger, founder of Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service
* 1956 – Kevin Dunn, American actor
* 1956 – Keisuke Kuwata, Japanese singer
* 1957 – David Muldrow Beasley, American politician and 113th Governor of South Carolina
* 1957 – Joe Mullen, American ice hockey player
* 1958 – Karen Berger, American comic book editor
* 1958 – Greg Germann, American actor
* 1958 – Susan J. Helms, American astronaut
* 1958 – Michel Houellebecq, French novelist
* 1958 – Tim Kaine, American politician, 70th Governor of Virginia
* 1959 – Rolando Blackman, American basketball player
* 1960 – Jaz Coleman, British musician
* 1960 – Robert Jaspert, German football manager
* 1962 – Kelly Gruber, American baseball player
* 1963 – Chase Masterson, American actress and singer
* 1964 – Mark Dacascos, American actor and martial artist
* 1966 – Najwa Karam, Lebanese singer
* 1967 – James Allodi, Canadian actor, writer and director
* 1967 – Currie Graham, Canadian actor
* 1968 – Tim Commerford, American bassist (Rage Against the Machine)
* 1968 – Ed Quinn, American actor
* 1968 – J. T. Snow, American baseball player
* 1969 – Hitoshi Sakimoto, Japanese composer
* 1971 – Erykah Badu, American singer
* 1971 – Max Martin, Swedish composer and producer
* 1971 – Hélène Ségara, French singer
* 1972 – Jonny Quinn, Northern Irish drummer (Snow Patrol)
* 1973 – Erinn Bartlett, American actress
* 1973 – Marshall Faulk, American football player
* 1973 – Ole Gunnar Solskjær, Norwegian footballer
* 1973 – Jenny Thompson, American swimmer
* 1974 – Sébastien Loeb, French rally driver
* 1976 – Nikolaos Siranidis, Greek diver
* 1976 – Chad Urmston, American musician
* 1977 – Marty Reasoner, American ice hockey player
* 1977 – Greg Rikaart, American actor
* 1977 – Tim Thomas, American basketball player
* 1977 – Josh Towers, American baseball player
* 1977 – Shane Williams, Welsh rugby player
* 1978 – Abdoulaye Diagne-Faye, Senegalese footballer
* 1978 – Marc Hynes, British racing driver
* 1979 – Corinne Bailey Rae, English singer
* 1979 – Mariano Bainotti, Argentine racing driver
* 1979 – Pedro Mendes, Portuguese footballer
* 1979 – Shalim Ortiz, Puerto Rican singer and actor
* 1980 – Steve Blake, American basketball player
* 1980 – Alex Fong, Hong Kong singer
* 1980 – Gary Majewski, baseball pitcher
* 1981 – Kertus Davis, American racing driver
* 1981 – Johnathan Wendel, American video gamer
* 1982 – Li Na (tennis), Chinese tennis player
* 1982 – Song Hye Kyo, South Korean model and actress
* 1983 – Jerome Harrison, American football player
* 1983 – Kara Monaco, American glamor model
* 1983 – Pepe, Brazilian born Portuguese football player
* 1984 – Emmanuel Adebayor, Togolese footballer
* 1984 – Alex de Angelis, San Marino motorcycle racer
* 1984 – Natalia Lafourcade, Mexican singer
* 1984 – Beren Saat, Turkish actress
* 1985 – Gee Atherton, British cyclist
* 1985 – Miki Fujimoto, Japanese singer
* 1985 – Alexandria Hilfiger, American actress
* 1985 – Fernando Llorente, Spanish footballer
* 1985 – Carolin Nytra, German athlete
* 1985 – Diego Ribas da Cunha, Brazilian footballer
* 1986 – Leandro dos Santos de Jesus, Brazilian footballer
* 1986 – Crystal Kay, Japanese singer
* 1986 – Hannah Kearney, American freestyle skier
* 1986 – Teresa Palmer, Australian model and actress
* 1986 – Juliet Simms, guitarist and singer (Automatic Loveletter)
* 1988 – Matteo Ciofani, Italian footballer
* 1990 – Kateřina Cachová, Czech heptathlete
* 1991 – CL (singer), South Korean singer/rapper (2NE1)
* 1992 – Mikael Granlund, Finnish ice hockey player
* 1993 – Taylor Dooley, American actress

Saturday, February 25, 2012

February 25, 1986- The People Power Revolution overthrows President Ferdinand Marcos

The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines that occurred in 1983-86. The methods used amounted to a sustained campaign of civil resistance against regime violence and electoral fraud. This case of nonviolent revolution led to the departure of President Ferdinand Marcos and the restoration of the country's democracy. It is also referred to as the Yellow Revolution due to the presence of yellow ribbons during the demonstrations and the arrival of Benigno Aquino, Jr.. It was widely seen as a victory of the people against the 20-year running authoritarian, repressive regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world".

The majority of the demonstrations took place on a long stretch of Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, more commonly known by its acronym EDSA, in Metropolitan Manila from February 22–25, 1986 and involved over two million Filipino civilians as well as several political, military, and including religious groups led by Cardinal Jaime Sin, the Archbishop of Manila. The protests, fueled by the resistance and opposition from years of corrupt governance by Marcos, culminated with the departure of the dictator from Malacañang Palace to the United States state of Hawaii. Corazon Aquino was proclaimed as the legitimate President of the Philippines after the revolution.

On February 25, 2011, the Philippines celebrated the 25th anniversary of the People Power Revolution.

At 3:00 p.m.(EST), Monday, February 25, 1986, Marcos talked to United States Senator Paul Laxalt, asking for advice from the White House. Laxalt advised him to "cut and cut cleanly", to which Marcos expressed his disappointment after a short pause. In the afternoon, Marcos talked to Enrile, asking for safe passage for him and his family including his close allies like General Ver. Finally, at 9:00 p.m., the Marcos family was transported by four US Navy SH-3 helicopters to Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Pampanga, about 83 kilometers north of Manila, before boarding US Air Force C-130 planes bound for Andersen Air Force Base in Guam, and finally to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where Marcos arrived on February 26.

When the news of Marcos' departure reached the people, many rejoiced and danced in the streets. Over at Mendiola, the demonstrators were finally able to enter Malacañang Palace, long denied to Filipinos in the past decade. Looting by overly angry protesters occurred, but mostly people wandered inside, looking at the place where all the decisions that changed the course of Philippine history had been made.

Many people around the world rejoiced and congratulated Filipinos they knew. Bob Simon, an anchorman at CBS said, "We Americans like to think we taught the Filipinos democracy. Well, tonight they are teaching the world."

February 25 in History

* 138 – The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor.
* 1570 – Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England.
* 1797 – Colonel William Tate and his force of 1000-1500 soldiers surrender after the Last Invasion of Britain.
* 1836 – Samuel Colt is granted a United States patent for the Colt revolver.
* 1843 – Provisional Cession of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands established by Lord George Paulet.
* 1866 – Miners in Calaveras County, California, discover what is now called the Calaveras Skull, human remains that supposedly indicated that man, mastodons, and elephants had co-existed.
* 1870 – Hiram Rhodes Revels, a Republican from Mississippi, is sworn into the United States Senate, becoming the first African American ever to sit in the U.S. Congress.
* 1901 – J. P. Morgan incorporates the United States Steel Corporation.
* 1912 – Marie-Adélaïde, the eldest of six daughters of Guillaume IV, becomes the first reigning Grand Duchess of Luxembourg.
* 1919 – Oregon places a 1 cent per U.S. gallon tax on gasoline, becoming the first U.S. state to levy a gasoline tax.
* 1921 – Tbilisi, capital of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, is occupied by Bolshevist Russia.
* 1928 – Charles Jenkins Laboratories of Washington, D.C. becomes the first holder of a television license from the Federal Radio Commission.
* 1932 – Adolf Hitler obtains German citizenship by naturalization, which allows him to run in the 1932 election for Reichspräsident.
* 1933 – The USS Ranger is launched. It is the first US Navy ship to be built solely as an aircraft carrier.
* 1941 – February Strike: In occupied Amsterdam, a general strike is declared in response to increasing anti-Jewish measures instituted by the Nazis.
* 1945 – World War II: Turkey declares war on Germany.
* 1947 – The State of Prussia ceases to exist.
* 1948 – The Communist Party takes control of government in Czechoslovakia and the period of the Third Republic ends.
* 1951 – The first Pan American Games are held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
* 1954 – Gamal Abdul Nasser is made premier of Egypt.
* 1956 – In his speech On the Personality Cult and its Consequences Nikita Khrushchev, leader of the Soviet Union denounces the cult of personality of Joseph Stalin.
* 1964 – North Korean Prime Minister Kim Il-sung calls for the removal of feudalistic land ownership aimed at turning all cooperative farms into state-run ones.
* 1964 – U.S. Air Force launches a satellite employing a US Air Force Atlas/Agena combination from Point Arguello (LC-2-3) in California and from Cape Kennedy in Florida.
* 1968 – Vietnam War: 135 unarmed citizens of Ha My village in South Vietnam's Quảng Nam Province are killed and buried en masse by South Korean troops in what would come to be known as the Ha My massacre.
* 1971 – The first unit of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, the first commercial nuclear power station in Canada, goes online.
* 1980 – The Suriname government is overthrown by a military coup which is initiated with the bombing of the police station from an army ship off the coast of the nation's capital, Paramaribo
* 1986 – People Power Revolution: President of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos flees the nation after 20 years of rule; Corazon Aquino becomes the Philippines' first woman president.
* 1991 – Gulf War: An Iraqi scud missile hits an American military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia killing 28 U.S. Army Reservists from Pennsylvania.
* 1992 – Khojaly massacre: about 613 civilians are killed by Armenian armed forces during the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan
* 1994 – Mosque of Abraham massacre: In the Cave of the Patriarchs in the West Bank city of Hebron, Baruch Goldstein opens fire with an automatic rifle, killing 29 Palestinian worshippers and injuring 125 more before being subdued and beaten to death by survivors.
* 2009 – BDR massacre in Pilkhana, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 74 people are killed, including more than 50 army officials, by Bangladeshi Border Guards inside its headquarters.
* 2011 – In the Irish general election, the Fianna Fáil-led government suffered the worst defeat of a sitting government since the formation of the Irish state in 1921.

February 25 Birthdays

* 1398 – Emperor Xuande of China (d. 1435)
* 1591 – Friedrich von Spee, German writer (d. 1635)
* 1643 – Ahmed II, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1695)
* 1651 – Johann Philipp Krieger, German Baroque composer and organist (d. 1725)
* 1663 – Pierre Antoine Motteux, French-born English dramatist (d. 1718)
* 1682 – Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Italian anatomist (d. 1771)
* 1692 – Karl Ludwig, Freiherr von Pöllnitz, German adventurer and writer (d. 1775)
* 1707 – Carlo Goldoni, Italian writer (d. 1793)
* 1714 – René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou, Chancellor of France (d. 1792)
* 1714 – Sir Hyde Parker, 5th Baronet, British admiral (d. 1782)
* 1725 – Karl Wilhelm Ramler, German poet (d. 1798)
* 1752 – John Graves Simcoe, British territorial lieutenant governor of Upper Canada (d. 1806)
* 1778 – Don José de San Martín, Argentine military commander (d. 1850)
* 1841 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter and sculptor (d. 1919)
* 1842 – Karl May, German writer (d. 1912)
* 1845 – George Reid, Australian politician (d. 1918)
* 1855 – George Bonnor, Australian cricketer (d. 1912)
* 1855 – Cesário Verde, Portuguese poet (d. 1886)
* 1860 – Sir William Ashley, British economic historian (d. 1927)
* 1861 – Rudolf Steiner, Austrian philosopher and educator (d. 1925)
* 1865 – Zoravar Andranik Armenian general, political and public activist and freedom fighter (d. 1927)
* 1866 – Benedetto Croce, Italian philosopher (d. 1952)
* 1871 – Lesya Ukrainka, Ukrainian poet (d.1913)
* 1873 – Enrico Caruso, Italian tenor (d. 1921)
* 1877 – Erich von Hornbostel, Austrian musicologist (d. 1935)
* 1883 – Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone (d. 1981)
* 1885 – Princess Alice of Battenberg (d. 1969)
* 1885 – Sylvia Brett, British socialite and wife of Charles Vyner Brooke (d. 1971)
* 1888 – John Foster Dulles, American politician, former United States Senator from New York, and 52nd United States Secretary of State (d. 1959)
* 1889 – Homer S. Ferguson, American politician (d. 1982)
* 1890 – Dame Myra Hess, English pianist (d. 1965)
* 1890 – Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet politician (d. 1986)
* 1894 – Meher Baba, Indian spiritual figure (d. 1969)
* 1895 – Lew Andreas, American basketball coach (d. 1984)
* 1897 – Peter Llewelyn Davies, British namesake of Peter Pan (d. 1960)
* 1901 – Zeppo Marx, American actor (d. 1979)
* 1903 – King Clancy, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1986)
* 1906 – Boris Papandopulo, Croatian composer and conductor (d. 1991)
* 1908 – Frank G. Slaughter, American novelist (d. 2001)
* 1910 – Millicent Fenwick, American fashion editor and politician (d. 1992)
* 1912 – Brenda Joyce, American actress (d. 2009)
* 1913 – Jim Backus, American actor (d. 1989)
* 1913 – Gert Fröbe, German actor (d. 1988)
* 1914 – John Arlott, English cricket journalist (d. 1991)
* 1916 – Reinhard Bendix, German sociologist (d. 1991)
* 1917 – Anthony Burgess, English author (d. 1993)
* 1918 – Barney Ewell, American athlete (d. 1996)
* 1918 – Rena Kyriakou, Greek pianist (d. 1994)
* 1918 – Bobby Riggs, American tennis player (d. 1995)
* 1919 – Karl H. Pribram, Austrian neuroscientist
* 1919 – Monte Irvin, American baseball player
* 1920 – Gérard Bessette, Canadian author (d. 2005)
* 1921 – Pierre Laporte, Canadian statesman (d. 1970)
* 1921 – Andy Pafko, American baseball player
* 1923 – Takeo Kajiwara, Japanese Go player (d. 2009)
* 1927 – Dickie Jones, American actor
* 1927 – Ralph Stanley, American musician
* 1928 – Larry Gelbart, American comedy writer (d. 2009)
* 1929 – Christopher George, American actor (d. 1983)
* 1929 – Tommy Newsom, American bandleader (d. 2007)
* 1930 – Sister Wendy Beckett, South African-born British art connoisseur
* 1932 – Tony Brooks, English race car driver
* 1932 – Faron Young, American singer (d. 1996)
* 1934 – Bernard Bresslaw, English actor (d. 1993)
* 1934 – Tony Lema, American golfer (d. 1966)
* 1935 – Sally Jessy Raphaël, American talk show host
* 1936 – Jiří Černý, Czech music critic
* 1937 – Tom Courtenay, English actor
* 1937 – Barbara Piasecka Johnson, widow of John Seward Johnson I
* 1937 – Bob Schieffer, American broadcast journalist
* 1938 – Diane Baker, American actress
* 1938 – Herb Elliott, Australian runner
* 1940 – Danny Cater, American baseball player
* 1940 – Billy Packer, American sports broadcaster
* 1940 – Ron Santo, American baseball player and broadcaster (d. 2010)
* 1942 – Karen Grassle, American actress
* 1942 – John Saul, American author
* 1943 – George Harrison, English musician (The Beatles) (d. 2001)
* 1943 – Wilson da Silva Piazza, Brazilian footballer
* 1944 – Matt Guokas, American basketball player & head coach
* 1945 – Elkie Brooks, English singer
* 1945 – Herbert Léonard, French singer
* 1946 – Franz Xaver Kroetz, German dramatist
* 1946 – Jean Todt, French Formula One executive
* 1947 – Giuseppe Betori, Archbishop of Florence
* 1947 – Lee Evans, American athlete
* 1947 – Doug Yule, American bass guitarist (The Velvet Underground)
* 1948 – Aldo Busi, Italian writer
* 1948 – Danny Denzongpa, Indian actor
* 1949 – Ric Flair, American professional wrestler
* 1949 – Jack Handey, American humorist
* 1949 – Amin Maalouf, Lebanese writer
* 1950 – Neil Jordan, Irish director
* 1950 – Néstor Kirchner, Argentine politician (d. 2010)
* 1950 – Francisco Fernández Ochoa, Spanish alpine skier (d. 2006)
* 1950 – Emitt Rhodes, American singer/songwriter
* 1951 – James Brown, American sportscaster
* 1951 – César Cedeño, Dominican baseball player
* 1951 – Don Quarrie, Jamaican runner
* 1952 – Jerry Chamberlain, American musician
* 1952 – Joey Dunlop, Irish motorcycle racer (d. 2000)
* 1952 – Inger Segelström, Swedish politician
* 1953 – José María Aznar, Spanish politician
* 1953 – Kim Yeong-cheol, South Korean actor
* 1954 – John Doe, American musician
* 1954 – Gerardo Pelusso, Uruguayan football manager
* 1957 – Sérgio Marques, Portuguese politician
* 1958 – Panagiotis Beglitis, Greek politician
* 1958 – Jeff Fisher, American football coach
* 1958 – Kurt Rambis, American basketball player and coach
* 1959 – Carl Marotte, Canadian actor
* 1959 – Mike Peters, Welsh musician (The Alarm)
* 1960 – Stefan Blöcher, German field hockey player
* 1961 – Davey Allison, American race car driver (d. 1993)
* 1961 – Todd Blackledge, American football player and television color commontator
* 1961 – Chris Pitman, American keyboardist (Guns N' Roses)
* 1962 – Birgit Fischer, German kayaker
* 1962 – Faron Moller, Canadian-born British computer scientist
* 1963 – Joseph E. Duncan III, American convicted serial killer and sex offender
* 1963 – Paul O'Neill, American baseball player
* 1964 – Lee Evans, English comedian
* 1964 – Don Majkowski, American football player
* 1964 – Luigi Troiani, Italian rugby player
* 1965 – Brian Baker, American guitarist
* 1965 – Veronica Webb, American supermodel and actress
* 1965 – Carrot Top, American comedian
* 1966 – Alexis Denisof, American actor
* 1966 – Samson Kitur, Kenyan athlete (d. 2003)
* 1966 – Téa Leoni, American actress
* 1966 – Nancy O'Dell, American television personality
* 1966 – Samantha Phillips, American actress
* 1968 – Evridiki, Greek Cypriot singer
* 1968 – Sandrine Kiberlain, French actress
* 1969 – Paul Trimboli, Australian soccer player
* 1970 – Julie Hesmondhalgh, English actress
* 1971 – Sean Astin, American actor
* 1971 – Dave Harris, American disc jockey
* 1971 – Daniel Powter, Canadian musician
* 1973 – Julio Iglesias, Jr., Spanish singer
* 1973 – Justin Jeffre, American singer (98 Degrees)
* 1973 – Anson Mount, American actor
* 1973 – Normann Stadler, German triathlete
* 1974 – Divya Bharti, Indian Actress
* 1975 – Chelsea Handler, American comedian and actress
* 1976 – Rashida Jones, American actress and musician
* 1976 – Samaki Walker, American basketball player
* 1977 – Sarah Jezebel Deva, English singer
* 1977 – Horace Mui, Chinese vocalist
* 1977 – Josh Wolff, American footballer
* 1979 – Jennifer Ferrin, American actress
* 1979 – David Hoflin, Swedish-born Australian Actor
* 1980 – Antonio Burks, American basketball player
* 1980 – Christy Knowings, American actress
* 1981 – Park Ji-Sung, South Korean footballer
* 1981 – Shahid Kapoor, Indian actor
* 1982 – Jamie Lynn, American pornographic actress
* 1982 – Chris Baird, Irish footballer
* 1982 – Kimberly Caldwell, American reality television personality
* 1982 – Maria Kanellis, American model and professional wrestler
* 1982 – Bert McCracken, American singer (The Used)
* 1982 – Flavia Pennetta, Italian professional tennis player
* 1982 – Anton Volchenkov, Russian ice hockey player
* 1982 – Tara Wilson, Canadian actress
* 1983 – Eduardo da Silva, Brazilian-born Croatian footballer
* 1984 – Logan Leistikow, American documentary filmmaker and comedian
* 1984 – Lovefoxxx, Brazilian singer (CSS)
* 1984 – Dane Swan, Australian rules footballer
* 1985 – Benji Marshall, New Zealand rugby league footballer
* 1985 – Joakim Noah, American basketball player
* 1986 – Justin Berfield, American actor
* 1986 – James and Oliver Phelps, English actors
* 1986 – Danny Saucedo, Swedish singer
* 1986 – James Starks, American football player
* 1987 – Justin Abdelkader, American ice hockey player
* 1987 – Kwaku Afriyie, Ghanaian footballer
* 1987 – Eva Avila, Canadian singer
* 1987 – Mevlüt Erdinç, Turkish footballer
* 1987 – Andrew Poje, Canadian figure skater
* 1988 – Jimmy Monaghan, Irish musician
* 1989 – Jimmer Fredette, American basketball player
* 1989 – E'Twaun Moore, American basketball player
* 1990 – Alejandra Andreu, Spanish pageant contestant
* 1990 – Jefferson Alves Oliveira, Brazilian footballer
* 1991 – Gerran Howell, Welsh actor
* 1991 – Tony Oller, American actor
* 1993 – Christina Kirkman, American actress
* 1994 – Eugénie Bouchard, Canadian tennis player
* 1997 – Isabelle Fuhrman, American actress
* 1998 – Brendon Baerg, American actor