Monday, January 9, 2012
January 9 Events
* 475 – Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople, and his general, Basiliscus gains control of the empire. * 1127 – Invading Jurchen soldiers from the Jin Dynasty besiege and sack Bianjing (Kaifeng), the capital of the Song Dynasty of China, and abduct Emperor Qinzong and others, ending the Northern Song Dynasty. * 1349 – The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing Black Death, is rounded up and incinerated. * 1431 – Judges' investigations for the trial of Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France, the seat of the English occupation government. * 1760 – Afghans defeat Marathas in the Battle of Barari Ghat. * 1768 – In London, England, Great Britain, Philip Astley stages the first modern circus. * 1788 – Connecticut becomes the fifth state to be admitted to the United States. * 1793 – Jean-Pierre Blanchard becomes the first person to fly in a balloon in the United States. * 1806 – Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson receives a state funeral and is interred in St Paul's Cathedral. * 1816 – Sir Humphry Davy tests the Davy lamp for miners at Hebburn Colliery. * 1822 – The Portuguese prince Pedro I of Brazil decides to stay in Brazil against the orders of the Portuguese King João VI, starting the Brazilian independence process. * 1839 – The French Academy of Sciences announces the Daguerreotype photography process. * 1857 – The Fort Tejon earthquake of California occurs, registering an estimated magnitude of 7.9. * 1858 – Anson Jones, the last President of the Republic of Texas, commits suicide. * 1861 – American Civil War: The "Star of the West" incident occurs near Charleston, South Carolina. It is considered by some historians to be the "First Shots of the American Civil War". * 1861 – Mississippi becomes the second state to secede from the Union before the outbreak of the American Civil War. * 1863 – American Civil War: the Battle of Fort Hindman begins in Arkansas. * 1878 – Umberto I becomes King of Italy. * 1880 – The Great Gale of 1880 devastates parts of Oregon and Washington with high wind and heavy snow. * 1894 – New England Telephone and Telegraph installs the first battery-operated telephone switchboard in Lexington, Massachusetts. * 1903 – Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson, son of the famous poet Alfred Tennyson, becomes the second Governor-General of Australia. * 1905 – According to the Julian calendar which is used at the time, Russian workers stage a march on the Winter Palace that ends in the massacre by Czarist troops known as Bloody Sunday, setting off the Revolution of 1905. * 1909 – Ernest Shackleton, leading the Nimrod Expedition to the South Pole, plants the British flag 97 nautical miles (180 km; 112 mi) from the South Pole, the furthest anyone had ever reached at that time. * 1914 – Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity Inc., the first historically black intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity to be officially recognized at Howard University is founded. * 1916 – World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli concludes with an Ottoman Empire victory when the last Allied forces are evacuated from the peninsula. * 1917 – World War I: the Battle of Rafa occurs near the Egyptian border with Palestine. * 1918 – Battle of Bear Valley: The last battle of the American Indian Wars. * 1921 – Greco-Turkish War: The First Battle of İnönü, the first battle of the war, began near Eskişehir in Anatolia. * 1923 – Juan de la Cierva makes the first autogyro flight. * 1923 – Lithuanian residents of the Memel Territory rebel against the League of Nations decision to leave the area as a mandated region under French control. * 1927 – A fire at the Laurier Palace movie theatre in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, kills 78 children. * 1941 – World War II: First flight of the Avro Lancaster. * 1941 – World War II: The Greek Triton (Y-5) sinks the Italian submarine Neghelli in Otranto. * 1945 – World War II: The United States invades Luzon in the Philippines. * 1947 – Elizabeth "Betty" Short, the Black Dahlia, is last seen alive. * 1960 – President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser opens construction on the Aswan Dam by detonating ten tons of dynamite to demolish twenty tons of granite on the east bank of the Nile. * 1964 – Martyrs' Day: Several Panamanian youths try to raise the Panamanian flag on the U.S.-controlled Panama Canal Zone, leading to fighting between U.S. military and Panamanian civilians. * 1965 – The Mirzapur Cadet College formally opens for academic activities in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). * 1991 – Representatives from the United States and Iraq meet at the Geneva Peace Conference to try to find a peaceful resolution to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. * 1992 – The Assembly of the Serb People in Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaims the creation of Republika Srpska, a new state within Yugoslavia. * 1996 – First Chechen War: Chechen separatists launch a raid against the helicopter airfield and later a civilian hospital in the city of Kizlyar in the neighboring Dagestan, which turns into a massive hostage crisis involving thousands of civilians. * 2004 – An inflatable boat carrying illegal Albanian emigrants stalls near the Karaburun Peninsula while on the way to Brindisi, Italy; exposure to the elements kills 28. * 2005 – Mahmoud Abbas wins the election to replace Yasser Arafat as President of the Palestinian National Authority. He replaces interim president Rawhi Fattouh.