Tuesday, January 31, 2012

January 31, 1961- Ham the Chimp Blasts into Space

On January 31, 1961, Ham the Chimp was secured in a Project Mercury mission labeled MR-2 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a suborbital flight. Ham had his vital signs and tasks monitored using computers on Earth. The capsule suffered a partial loss of pressure during the flight, but Ham's space suit prevented him from suffering any harm. Ham's lever-pushing performance in space was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed in space. Ham's capsule splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean and was recovered by a rescue ship later that day. He only suffered a bruised nose. His flight was 16 minutes and 39 seconds long.

Ten months later, another chimp, named Enos, successfully orbited the earth. This was several months after Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin's orbital flight and Shepard and Grissom's suborbital flights, but before US astronaut John Glenn's orbital flight aboard Mercury's Friendship 7.

Ham (July 1956 – January 19, 1983), also known as Ham the Chimp and Ham the Astrochimp, was the first chimpanzee launched into outer space in the American space program. Ham's name is an acronym for the lab that prepared him for his historic mission — the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico.

January 31 Events

* 314 – Silvester I begins his reign as Pope of the Catholic Church, succeeding Pope Miltiades.
* 1504 – France cedes Naples to Aragon.
* 1606 – Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes is executed for his plotting against Parliament and James I of England.
* 1747 – The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Lock Hospital.
* 1814 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas becomes Supreme Director of Argentina.
* 1846 – After the Milwaukee Bridge War, Juneautown and Kilbourntown unify as the City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
* 1848 – John C. Fremont is court-martialed for mutiny and disobeying orders.
* 1849 – Corn Laws are abolished in the United Kingdom (following legislation in 1846).
* 1862 – Alvan Graham Clark discovers the white dwarf star Sirius B, a companion of Sirius, through an 18.5-inch (47 cm) telescope now located at Northwestern University.
* 1865 – American Civil War: The United States Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, abolishing slavery, submitting it to the states for ratification.
* 1865 – American Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee becomes general-in-chief.
* 1867 – Maronite nationalist leader Youssef Karam leaves Lebanon on board a French ship bound for Algeria
* 1876 – The United States orders all Native Americans to move into reservations.
* 1891 – The first attempt at a Portuguese republican revolution breaks out in the northern city of Porto.
* 1900 – Datu Muhammad Salleh is assassinated in Kampung Teboh, Tambunan, ending the Mat Salleh Rebellion
* 1915 – World War I: Germany uses poison gas against Russia
* 1917 – World War I: Germany announces that its U-boats will resume unrestricted submarine warfare after a two-year hiatus.
* 1918 – A series of accidental collisions on a misty Scottish night leads to the loss of two Royal Navy submarines with over a hundred lives, and damage to another five British warships.
* 1919 – The Battle of George Square takes place in Glasgow, Scotland.
* 1929 – The Soviet Union exiles Leon Trotsky.
* 1930 – 3M begins marketing Scotch Tape.
* 1942 – World War II: Allied forces are defeated by the Japanese at the Battle of Malaya and retreat to the island of Singapore.
* 1943 – German Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus surrenders to the Soviets at Stalingrad, followed 2 days later by the remainder of his Sixth Army, ending one of World War II's fiercest battles.
* 1944 – World War II: American forces land on Kwajalein Atoll and other islands in the Japanese-held Marshall Islands.
* 1944 – World War II: During Anzio campaign 1st Ranger Battalion (Darby's Rangers) is destroyed behind enemy lines in a heavily outnumbered encounter at Battle of Cisterna, Italy.
* 1945 – US Army private Eddie Slovik is executed for desertion, the first such execution of an American soldier since the Civil War.
* 1945 – World War II: About 3,000 inmates from the Stutthof concentration camp are forcibly marched into the Baltic Sea at Palmnicken (now Yantarny, Russia) and executed.
* 1946 – Yugoslavia's new constitution, modeling the Soviet Union, establishes six constituent republics (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia).
* 1950 – President Harry S. Truman announces a program to develop the hydrogen bomb.
* 1953 – A North Sea flood causes over 1,800 deaths in the Netherlands.
* 1957 – Eight people on the ground in Pacoima, California are killed following the mid-air collision between a Douglas DC-7 airliner and a Northrop F-89 Scorpion fighter jet.
* 1958 – Explorer program: Explorer 1 – The first successful launch of an American satellite into orbit.
* 1958 – James Van Allen discovers the Van Allen radiation belt.
* 1961 – Project Mercury: Mercury-Redstone 2 – Ham the Chimp travels into outer space.
* 1966 – The Soviet Union launches the unmanned Luna 9 spacecraft as part of the Luna program.
* 1968 – Viet Cong attack the United States embassy in Saigon, and other attacks, in the early morning hours, later grouped together as the Tet Offensive.
* 1968 – Nauru gains independence from Australia.
* 1971 – Apollo program: Apollo 14 – Astronauts Alan Shepard, Stuart Roosa, and Edgar Mitchell, aboard a Saturn V, lift off for a mission to the Fra Mauro Highlands on the Moon.
* 1971 – The Winter Soldier Investigation, organized by the Vietnam Veterans Against the War to publicize war crimes and atrocities by Americans and allies in Vietnam, begin in Detroit, Michigan.
* 1990 – The first McDonald's in the Soviet Union opens in Moscow.
* 1995 – President Bill Clinton authorizes a $20 billion loan to Mexico to stabilize its economy.
* 1996 – An explosives-filled truck rams into the gates of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka in Colombo, Sri Lanka killing at least 86 and injuring 1,400.
* 1996 – Comet Hyakutake is discovered by Japanese amateur astronomer Yuji Hyakutake.
* 2000 – Alaska Airlines Flight 261 crash: An MD-83, experiencing horizontal stabilizer problems, crashes in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Point Mugu, California, killing all 88 aboard.
* 2001 – In the Netherlands, a Scottish court convicts Libyan Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and acquits another Libyan citizen for their part in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988.
* 2003 – The Waterfall rail accident occurs near Waterfall, New South Wales, Australia.
* 2007 – Suspects are arrested in Birmingham in the UK, accused of plotting the kidnap, holding and eventual beheading of a serving Muslim British soldier in Iraq.
* 2009 – In Kenya, at least 113 people are killed and over 200 injured following an oil spillage ignition in Molo, days after a massive fire at a Nakumatt supermarket in Nairobi killed at least 25 people.

January 31 Birthdays

* 36 BC – Antonia Minor, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor (d. 38 AD)
* 877 – Taejo of Goryeo of Korea (d. 943)
* 1512 – King Henry of Portugal (d. 1580)
* 1543 – Tokugawa Ieyasu, Shogun of Japan (d. 1616)
* 1550 – Henry I, Duke of Guise (d. 1588)
* 1597 – John Francis Regis, French saint (d. 1640)
* 1624 – Arnold Geulincx, Flemish philosopher (d. 1669)
* 1673 – Louis de Montfort, French catholic priest and saint (d. 1716)
* 1686 – Hans Egede, Norwegian Lutheran missionary (d. 1758)
* 1752 – Gouverneur Morris, American lawmaker and diplomat (d. 1816)
* 1759 – François Devienne, French composer (d. 1803)
* 1797 – Franz Schubert, Austrian composer (d. 1828)
* 1820 – William B. Washburn, American politician and 28th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1887)
* 1825 – Miska Magyarics, Slovene poet in Hungary (d. 1883)
* 1835 – King William Charles Lunalilo of Hawaiʻi (d. 1874)
* 1857 – George Jackson Churchward, British railroad engineer. (d. 1933)
* 1865 – Henri Desgrange, French sports figure and journalist (d. 1940)
* 1865 – Shastriji Maharaj, Indian spiritual leader (d. 1951)
* 1868 – Theodore William Richards, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1928)
* 1872 – Zane Grey, American novelist (d. 1939)
* 1881 – Irving Langmuir, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1957)
* 1884 – Theodor Heuss, German statesman (d. 1963)
* 1889 – Frank Foster, English cricketer (d. 1958)
* 1892 – Eddie Cantor, American actor and singer (d. 1964)
* 1894 – Isham Jones, American musician (d. 1956)
* 1896 – Sofya Yanovskaya, Russian mathematician (d. 1966)
* 1902 –Nat Bailey, Canadian restaurateur (d. 1978)
* 1902 – Tallulah Bankhead, American actress (d. 1968)
* 1902 – Alva Myrdal, Swedish politician, Nobel laureate (d. 1986)
* 1905 – John O'Hara, American writer (d. 1970)
* 1911 – Eddie Byrne, British actor (d. 1981)
* 1913 – Don Hutson, American football player (d. 1997)
* 1914 – Carey Loftin, American actor and stuntman (d. 1997)
* 1914 – Faye Wright, American spiritual figure (d. 2010)
* 1914 – Jersey Joe Walcott, American boxer (d. 1994)
* 1915 – Alan Lomax, American musicologist (d. 2002)
* 1915 – Thomas Merton, American author and monk (d. 1968)
* 1915 – Garry Moore, American comedian (d. 1993)
* 1919 – Jackie Robinson, American baseball player (d. 1972)
* 1920 – Stewart Udall, American politician and 37th United States Secretary of the Interior (d. 2010)
* 1920 – Bert Williams, English footballer
* 1921 – John Agar, American actor (d. 2002)
* 1921 – Carol Channing, American actress and singer
* 1921 – E. Fay Jones, American architect (d. 2004)
* 1921 – Mario Lanza, American singer (d. 1959)
* 1922 – Joanne Dru, American actress (d. 1996)
* 1923 – Norman Mailer, American writer and journalist (d. 2007)
* 1925 – Benjamin Hooks, American civil rights activist (d. 2010)
* 1926 – Tom Alston, American baseball player (d. 1993)
* 1927 – Norm Prescott, American animation producer (d. 2005)
* 1928 – Chuck Willis, American singer and songwriter (d. 1958)
* 1929 – Rudolf Mössbauer, German physicist, Nobel laureate
* 1929 – Jean Simmons, English American actress (d. 2010)
* 1930 – Joakim Bonnier, Swedish race car driver (d. 1972)
* 1930 – Lynn Carlin, American actress
* 1931 – Ernie Banks, American baseball player
* 1931 – Christopher Chataway, English athlete, newscaster and politician
* 1933 – Camille Henry, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1997)
* 1933 – Bernardo Provenzano, Sicilian organized crime figure
* 1934 – James Franciscus, American actor (d. 1991)
* 1934 – Bob Turner, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2005)
* 1935 – Kenzaburo Oe, Japanese writer, Nobel laureate
* 1937 – Regimantas Adomaitis, Lithuanian actor
* 1937 – Andrée Boucher, Canadian politician (d. 2007)
* 1937 – Philip Glass, American composer
* 1937 – Suzanne Pleshette, American actress (d. 2008)
* 1938 – Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands
* 1938 – James G. Watt, American politician and 43rd United States Secretary of the Interior
* 1939 – Claude Gauthier, Canadian singer and songwriter
* 1940 – Kitch Christie, South African rugby union coach (d. 1998)
* 1941 – Richard A. Gephardt, American politician
* 1941 – Gerald McDermott, American filmmaker, children’s book author & illustrator
* 1941 – Jessica Walter, American actress
* 1942 – Daniela Bianchi, Italian actress
* 1942 – Derek Jarman, British director and writer (d. 1994)
* 1944 – Connie Booth, American writer and actress
* 1944 – Charlie Musselwhite, American musician
* 1945 – Joseph Kosuth, American conceptual artist
* 1946 – Terry Kath, American musician (Chicago) (d. 1978)
* 1946 – Glynn Turman, American actor
* 1947 – Jonathan Banks, American actor
* 1947 – Elena Nathanael, Greek actress (d. 2008)
* 1947 – Nolan Ryan, American baseball player
* 1948 – Muneo Suzuki, Japanese politician
* 1949 – Johan Derksen, Dutch footballer and sports journalist
* 1949 – Norris Church Mailer, American model and widow of Norman Mailer (d. 2010)
* 1949 – Ken Wilber, American author
* 1950 – Alexander Korzhakov, Soviet bodyguard for Boris Yeltsin
* 1951 – Dave Benton, Aruban singer
* 1951 – Harry Wayne Casey, American singer and musician (KC and the Sunshine Band)
* 1951 – Phil Manzanera, English guitarist (Roxy Music, Quiet Sun, 801)
* 1952 – Nadya Rusheva, Russian painter (d. 1969)
* 1954 – Adrian Vandenberg, Dutch musician (Whitesnake)
* 1956 – John Lydon, English singer (Sex Pistols, Public Image Ltd.)
* 1957 – Shirley Babashoff, American swimmer
* 1959 – Anthony LaPaglia, Australian actor
* 1959 – Kelly Lynch, American actress
* 1959 – Kelly Moore, American stock car driver
* 1960 – Grant Morrison, British comic author
* 1961 – Lloyd Cole, British singer
* 1962 – Sophie Muller, British music video director
* 1964 – Sylvie Bernier, French-Canadian diver
* 1964 – Jeff Hanneman, American musician (Slayer)
* 1964 – Martha MacCallum, American news anchor
* 1964 – Billey Shamrock, Swedish singer
* 1966 – Dr Umar Alisha, Indian Sufi master
* 1966 – Dexter Fletcher, English actor
* 1967 – Chad Channing, American musician
* 1967 – Fat Mike, American musician
* 1967 – Irene Wan, Hong Kong actress
* 1967 – Joey Wong, Taiwanese actress
* 1967 – Jason Cooper, English musician (The Cure)
* 1968 – Matt King, British actor and comedian
* 1968 – Patrick Stevens, Belgian athlete
* 1970 – Minnie Driver, British actress
* 1970 – Danny Michel, Canadian Musician
* 1971 – Lee Young Ae, South Korean actress
* 1971 – Patrick Kielty, Northern Irish comedian
* 1971 – Dimitris Markos, Greek footballer
* 1971 – Patricia Velásquez, Venezuelan actress and model
* 1973 – Portia de Rossi, Australian actress
* 1974 – Wil Anderson, Australian comedian
* 1974 – Othella Harrington, American basketball player
* 1974 – Ariel Pestano, Cuban baseball player
* 1975 – Fred Coleman, American football player
* 1975 – Jackie O, Australian radio host
* 1975 – Preity Zinta, Indian actress
* 1976 – Traianos Dellas, Greek footballer
* 1976 – Tyrone Nesby, American basketball player
* 1976 – Buddy Rice, American race car driver
* 1976 – Paul Scheer, American comedian and actor
* 1977 – Mark Dutiaume, Canadian hockey player
* 1977 – Shingo Katori, Japanese actor and singer (SMAP)
* 1977 – Jim Kleinsasser, American football player
* 1977 – Bobby Moynihan, American comedian (Saturday Night Live)
* 1977 – Kate Shindle, American actress
* 1977 – Kerry Washington, American actress
* 1978 – Fabián Caballero, Argentine footballer
* 1978 – Brad Rutter, American game show contestant
* 1978 – Ray Shah, Irish radio presenter
* 1978 – Arthur Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, English noble
* 1979 – Daniel Tammet, British savant and author
* 1980 – James Adomian, American actor
* 1980 – Tiffany Limos, American actress
* 1981 – Julio Arca, Argentinian football player
* 1981 – Amrita Arora, Indian actress
* 1981 – Justin Timberlake, American singer
* 1982 – Yuniesky Betancourt, Cuban baseball player
* 1982 – Andreas Görlitz, German football player
* 1982 – Salvatore Masiello, Italian footballer
* 1982 – Allan McGregor, Scottish football player
* 1982 – Bruno Nogueira, Portuguese actor, comedian and TV host
* 1982 – Elena Paparizou, Greek singer
* 1982 – Jānis Sprukts, Latvian hockey player
* 1982 – Brad Thompson, American baseball player
* 1983 – James Sutton, British actor
* 1983 – Tom Vangeneugden, Belgian swimmer
* 1984 – Vernon Davis, American football player
* 1984 – Jeremy Wariner, American track and field athlete
* 1984 – Alessandro Zanni, Italian rugby player
* 1985 – Adam Federici, Australian footballer
* 1985 – Kalomira, Greek singer
* 1985 – Mario Williams, American football player
* 1986 – Yves Makabu-Makalambay, Belgian footballer
* 1987 – Sargon Duran, Austrian footballer
* 1987 – Kenny McKinley, American football player (d. 2010)
* 1987 – Raúl Richter, German actor
* 1988 – Justine Ozga, German tennis player
* 1990 – Nicolò De Cesare, Italian footballer
* 1990 – Jacopo Fortunato, Italian footballer
* 1990 – Kota Yabu, Japanese actor and singer
* 1992 – Tyler Seguin, Canadian hockey player
* 1996 – Joel Courtney, American film actor

Monday, January 30, 2012

January 30, 1972- Sunday, Bloody Sunday

Bloody Sunday (Irish: Domhnach na Fola)—sometimes called the Bogside Massacre—was an incident on 30 January 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, in which 26 unarmed civil-rights protesters and bystanders were shot by soldiers of the British Army. Thirteen males, seven of whom were teenagers, died immediately or soon after, while the death of another man four-and-a-half months later was attributed to the injuries he received on that day. Two protesters were also injured when they were run down by army vehicles. Five of those wounded were shot in the back. The incident occurred during a Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march; the soldiers involved were members of the First Battalion of the Parachute Regiment (1 Para).

Two investigations have been held by the British government. The Widgery Tribunal, held in the immediate aftermath of the event, largely cleared the soldiers and British authorities of blame—Widgery described the soldiers' shooting as "bordering on the reckless"—but was criticised as a "whitewash", including by Jonathan Powell. The Saville Inquiry, chaired by Lord Saville of Newdigate, was established in 1998 to reinvestigate the events. Following a 12-year inquiry, Saville's report was made public on 15 June 2010, and contained findings of fault that could re-open the controversy, and potentially lead to criminal investigations for some soldiers involved in the killings. The report found that all of those shot were unarmed, and that the killings were both "unjustified and unjustifiable." On the publication of the Saville report the British prime minister, David Cameron, made a formal apology on behalf of the United Kingdom.

The Provisional Irish Republican Army's (IRA) campaign against the partition of Ireland had begun in the two years prior to Bloody Sunday, but public perceptions of the day boosted the status of, and recruitment into, the organisation enormously. Bloody Sunday remains among the most significant events in the Troubles of Northern Ireland, chiefly because it was carried out by the army and not paramilitaries, in full view of the public and the press.

January 30 Events

* 1048 – Protestantism: The villagers around today's Baden-Baden elect their own priest in defiance of the local bishop.
* 1648 – Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster and Osnabrück is signed, ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain.
* 1649 – King Charles I of England is beheaded.
* 1661 – Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England is ritually executed two years after his death, on the anniversary of the execution of the monarch he himself deposed.
* 1667 – The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth cedes Kiev, Smolensk, and left-bank Ukraine to the Tsardom of Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo.
* 1703 – The Forty-seven Ronin, under the command of Ōishi Kuranosuke, avenge the death of their master.
* 1790 – The first boat specializing as a lifeboat is tested on the River Tyne.
* 1806 – The original Lower Trenton Bridge (also called the Trenton Makes the World Takes Bridge), which spans the Delaware River between Morrisville, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey, is opened.
* 1820 – Edward Bransfield sights the Trinity Peninsula and claims the discovery of Antarctica.
* 1826 – The Menai Suspension Bridge, considered the world's first modern suspension bridge, connecting the Isle of Anglesey to the north West coast of Wales, is opened.
* 1835 – In the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States, Richard Lawrence attempts to shoot president Andrew Jackson, but fails and is subdued by a crowd, including several congressmen.
* 1841 – A fire destroys two-thirds of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.
* 1847 – Yerba Buena, California is renamed San Francisco.
* 1858 – The first Hallé concert is given in Manchester, England, marking the official founding of the Hallé Orchestra as a full-time, professional orchestra.
* 1862 – The first American ironclad warship, the USS Monitor is launched.
* 1889 – Archduke Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian crown, is found dead with his mistress Baroness Mary Vetsera in Mayerling.
* 1902 – The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance is signed in London.
* 1911 – The destroyer USS Terry (DD-25) makes the first airplane rescue at sea saving the life of James McCurdy 10 miles from Havana, Cuba.
* 1911 – The Canadian Naval Service becomes the Royal Canadian Navy.
* 1913 – The United Kingdom's House of Lords rejects the Irish Home Rule Bill.
* 1925 – The Government of Turkey throws Patriarch Constantine VI out of Istanbul.
* 1933 – Adolf Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.
* 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces invade the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies.
* 1943 – World War II: Second day of the Battle of Rennell Island. The USS Chicago (CA-29) is sunk and a U.S. destroyer is heavily damaged by Japanese torpedoes.
* 1944 – World War II: United States troops land on Majuro.
* 1945 – World War II: The Wilhelm Gustloff, overfilled with refugees, sinks in the Baltic Sea after being torpedoed by a Soviet submarine, leading to the deadliest known maritime disaster, killing approximately 9,400 people.
* 1945 – World War II: Raid at Cabanatuan: 126 American Rangers and Filipino resistance liberate 500 prisoners from the Cabanatuan POW camp.
* 1948 – Indian pacifist and leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi known for his non-violent freedom struggle is assassinated by Pandit Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist.
* 1956 – American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.'s home is bombed in retaliation for the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
* 1959 – MS Hans Hedtoft, said to be the safest ship afloat and "unsinkable" like the RMS Titanic, struck an iceberg on her maiden voyage and sank, killing all 95 aboard.
* 1960 – The African National Party is founded in Chad, through the merger of traditionalist parties.
* 1964 – Ranger program: Ranger 6 is launched.
* 1964 – In a bloodless coup, General Nguyen Khanh overthrows General Duong Van Minh's military junta in South Vietnam.
* 1969 – The Beatles' last public performance, on the roof of Apple Records in London. The impromptu concert is broken up by the police.
* 1971 – Carole King's Tapestry album is released, it would become the longest charting album by a female solo artist and sell 24 million copies worldwide.
* 1972 – Bloody Sunday: British Paratroopers kill fourteen unarmed civil rights/anti internment marchers in Northern Ireland.
* 1972 – Pakistan withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations.
* 1975 – The Monitor National Marine Sanctuary is established as the first United States National Marine Sanctuary.
* 1979 – A Varig 707-323C freighter, flown by the same commander as Flight 820, disappears over the Pacific Ocean 30 minutes after taking off from Tokyo.
* 1982 – Richard Skrenta writes the first PC virus code, which is 400 lines long and disguised as an Apple boot program called "Elk Cloner".
* 1989 – The American embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan closes.
* 1994 – Péter Lékó becomes the youngest chess grand master.
* 1995 – Workers from the National Institutes of Health announce the success of clinical trials testing the first preventive treatment for sickle-cell disease.
* 1996 – Gino Gallagher, the suspected leader of the Irish National Liberation Army, is killed while waiting in line for his unemployment benefit.
* 2000 – Off the coast of Ivory Coast, Kenya Airways Flight 431 crashes into the Atlantic Ocean, killing 169.

January 30 Birthdays

* 133 – Marcus Severus Didius Julianus, Roman Emperor (d. 193)
* 1563 – Franciscus Gomarus, Dutch theologian (d. 1641)
* 1615 – Thomas Rolfe, American colonial settler; son of Pocahontas and John Rolfe (d. 1675)
* 1661 – Charles Rollin, French historian (d. 1741)
* 1697 – Johann Joachim Quantz, German flautist and composer (d. 1773)
* 1720 – Charles De Geer, Swedish industrialist and entomologist (d. 1778)
* 1754 – John Lansing, Jr., American statesman (d. 1829)
* 1775 – Walter Savage Landor, English writer (d. 1864)
* 1781 – Adelbert von Chamisso, German writer (d. 1838)
* 1816 – Nathaniel Prentice Banks, American politician, 25th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and 24th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1894)
* 1822 – Franz Ritter von Hauer, Austrian geologist (d. 1899)
* 1832 – Infanta Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier (d. 1897)
* 1841 – Félix Faure, French politician (d. 1899)
* 1859 – Tony Mullane, Irish-born American baseball player (d. 1944)
* 1861 – Charles Martin Loeffler, German-born composer (d. 1935)
* 1866 – Gelett Burgess, American literary humorist (d. 1951)
* 1873 – Georges Ricard-Cordingley, French painter (d. 1939)
* 1878 – Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Estonian author (d. 1940)
* 1882 – Franklin D. Roosevelt, American politician, 44th Governor of New York, and 32nd President of the United States (d. 1945)
* 1890 – Bruno Kastner, German actor (d. 1932)
* 1889 – Jaishankar Prasad, Indian poet and dramatist (d. 1937)
* 1894 – Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria (d. 1943)
* 1899 – Max Theiler, South African virologist, Nobel Prize Laureate (d. 1972)
* 1901 – Rudolf Caracciola, German race car driver (d. 1959)
* 1902 – Nikolaus Pevsner, German-born art historian (d. 1983)
* 1910 – Chidambaram Subramaniam, Indian politician (d. 2000)
* 1911 – Roy Eldridge, American musician (d. 1989)
* 1912 – Werner Hartmann, German physicist (d. 1988)
* 1912 – Francis Schaeffer, American theologian and pastor (d. 1984)
* 1912 – Barbara W. Tuchman, American historian (d. 1989)
* 1913 – Percy Thrower, British Television Gardener (d. 1988)
* 1914 – Luc-Marie Bayle, French naval officer and artist (d. 2000)
* 1914 – John Ireland, Canadian actor (d. 1992)
* 1914 – David Wayne, American actor (d. 1995)
* 1915 – Joachim Peiper, German SS officer (d. 1976)
* 1915 – John Profumo, British cabinet minister (d. 2006)
* 1917 – Paul Frère, Belgian racing driver and motorsport journalist (d. 2008)
* 1918 – David Opatoshu, American television actor (d. 1996)
* 1919 – Nikolay Glazkov, Russian poet (d. 1979)
* 1920 – Michael Anderson, English film director
* 1920 – Carwood Lipton, American WWII veteran (d. 2001)
* 1920 – Delbert Mann, American film director (d. 2007)
* 1922 – Dick Martin, American comedian (d. 2008)
* 1923 – Walt Dropo, American baseball player (d. 2010)
* 1924 – Lloyd Alexander, American writer (d. 2007)
* 1925 – Douglas Engelbart, American computer scientist
* 1925 – Dorothy Malone, American actress
* 1927 – Olof Palme, Swedish politician (d. 1986)
* 1927 – Bendapudi Venkata Satyanarayana, Indian dermatologist (d. 2005)
* 1928 – Hal Prince, American stage producer and director
* 1929 – Lucille Teasdale-Corti, Canadian surgeon and aid worker (d. 1996)
* 1930 – Sandy Amorós, Cuban baseball player (d. 1992)
* 1930 – Samuel Byck, American attempted assassin of Richard Nixon (d. 1974)
* 1930 – Gene Hackman, American actor
* 1930 – Magnus Malan, South African politician
* 1931 – John Crosbie, Canadian politician
* 1931 – Allan W. Eckert, American naturalist and author
* 1931 – Shirley Hazzard, Australian-born author
* 1932 – Knock Yokoyama, Japanese comedian and politician
* 1933 – Louis Rukeyser, American journalist (d. 2006)
* 1935 – Richard Brautigan, American writer and poet (d. 1984)
* 1936 – F. Vernon Boozer, American politician
* 1936 – Patrick Caulfield, British painter and printmaker (d. 2005)
* 1936 – Horst Jankowski, German popular pianist (d. 1998)
* 1937 – Ed Hansen, American film director and editor (d. 2005)
* 1937 – Vanessa Redgrave, English actress
* 1937 – Boris Spassky, Russian chess player
* 1938 – Islam Karimov, Uzbekistani politician
* 1941 – Gregory Benford, American author and scientist
* 1941 – Dick Cheney, American politician, 7th White House Chief of Staff, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Wyoming, 17th United States Secretary of Defense and 46th Vice President of the United States
* 1941 – Tineke Lagerberg, Dutch swimmer
* 1942 – Marty Balin, American musician
* 1943 – Davey Johnson, American baseball player and manager
* 1945 – Michael Dorris, American author (d. 1997)
* 1947 – Les Barker, English poet
* 1947 – Steve Marriott, English musician (Humble Pie, The Small Faces) (d. 1991)
* 1948 – Nick Broomfield, English documentarian
* 1948 – Paul Magee, Irish IRA figure
* 1948 – Miles Reid, English mathematician
* 1949 – Peter Agre, American biologist, Nobel laureate
* 1950 – Trinidad Silva, American actor (d. 1988)
* 1951 – Phil Collins, English musician
* 1951 – Charles S. Dutton, American actor
* 1951 – Bobby Stokes, English former footballer (d. 1995)
* 1952 – Doug Falconer, Canadian football player
* 1955 – John Baldacci, American politician, 73rd governor of Maine
* 1955 – Curtis Strange, American golfer
* 1955 – Judith Tarr, American author
* 1955 – Mychal Thompson, Bahamian basketball player
* 1956 – Jeremy Gittins, English actor
* 1956 – Keiichi Tsuchiya, Japanese racing driver
* 1956 – Darko Rundek, Croatian rock singer, songwriter, poet, actor and theatrical director
* 1957 – Payne Stewart, American golfer (d. 1999)
* 1958 – Brett Butler, American actress and comedian
* 1959 – Mark Eitzel, American singer and musician (American Music Club)
* 1959 – Jody Watley, American singer
* 1960 – Tony O'Dell, American actor
* 1960 – Alex Titomirov, Russian-born American businessman
* 1961 – Dexter Scott King, son of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Coretta Scott King
* 1962 – King Abdullah II of Jordan
* 1963 – Tina Malone, English actress
* 1964 – Otis Smith, American basketball player
* 1965 – Julie McCullough, American model and actress
* 1966 – Danielle Goyette, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1967 – Jay Gordon, American musician
* 1968 – Trevor Dunn, American musician (Mr. Bungle, Fantômas, Secret Chiefs 3)
* 1968 – Prince Felipe of Spain
* 1968 – Tony Maudsley, British film actor
* 1969 – Carolyn Kepcher, American businesswoman and reality TV actor
* 1971 – Darren Boyd, British actor
* 1971 – Kimo von Oelhoffen, American football player
* 1972 – Lupillo Rivera, Mexican singer
* 1972 – Chris Simon, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1973 – Jalen Rose, American basketball player
* 1974 – Christian Bale, English actor
* 1974 – Olivia Colman, English actress
* 1974 – Jemima Khan, English socialite
* 1975 – Juninho Pernambucano, Brazilian footballer
* 1975 – Yumi Yoshimura, Japanese singer (Puffy Amiyumi)
* 1976 – Andy Milonakis, American comedian
* 1977 – Dan Hinote, American ice hockey player
* 1977 – Tom Malchow, American swimmer
* 1977 – Deltha O'Neal, American football player
* 1978 – Carmen Küng, Swiss curler
* 1978 – John Patterson, American baseball player
* 1979 – Trevor Gillies, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1980 – Leilani Dowding, British model
* 1980 – Josh Kelley, American musician
* 1980 – Pavel Ponomaryov, Russian-Estonian actor
* 1980 – Joãozinho, Brazilian footballer
* 1980 – Wilmer Valderrama, American actor
* 1981 – Jonathan Bender, American basketball player
* 1981 – Dimitar Berbatov, Bulgarian footballer
* 1981 – Peter Crouch, English footballer
* 1981 – Mathias Lauda, Austrian racing driver
* 1982 – Jorge Cantu, Mexican baseball player
* 1982 – DeSagana Diop, Senegalese basketball player
* 1982 – Mark Nwokeji, English footballer
* 1984 – Jeremy Hermida, American baseball player
* 1984 – Kid Cudi, American hip hop performer
* 1984 – Xi Zhang, American Painter
* 1985 – Trae Williams, American football player
* 1986 – Sam Duckworth, British singer-songwriter
* 1986 – Nick Evans, American baseball player
* 1987 – Rebecca Knox, Irish professional wrestler
* 1987 – Renato Santos, Brazilian footballer
* 1987 – Arda Turan, Turkish footballer
* 1988 – Rob Pinkston, American actor
* 1989 – Khleo Thomas, American actor and rapper
* 1990 – Eiza Gonzalez, Mexican actress and singer
* 1990 – Luca Sbisa, Swiss ice hockey player
* 1990 – Jake Thomas, American actor
* 1995 – Thia Megia, American Idol season 10 finalist
* 2005 – Prince Hashem bin Al Abdullah II of Jordan

Sunday, January 29, 2012

January 29, 1845- Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven Published

Edgar Allan Poe first brought "The Raven" to his friend and former employer George Rex Graham of Graham's Magazine in Philadelphia. Graham declined the poem, which may not have been in its final version, though he gave Poe $15 as charity. Poe then sold the poem to The American Review, which paid him $9 for it, and printed "The Raven" in its February 1845 issue under the pseudonym "Quarles", a reference to the English poet Francis Quarles. The poem's first publication with Poe's name was in the Evening Mirror on January 29, 1845, as an "advance copy".

The Raven
Edgar Allan Poe

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore —
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
"'Tis some visiter," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door —
Only this and nothing more."

Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December;
And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.
Eagerly I wished the morrow; — vainly I had sought to borrow
From my books surcease of sorrow — sorrow for the lost Lenore —
For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore —
Nameless here for evermore.

And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain
Thrilled me — filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;
So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating
"'Tis some visiter entreating entrance at my chamber door —
Some late visiter entreating entrance at my chamber door; —
This it is and nothing more."

Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer,
"Sir," said I, "or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore;
But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping,
And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door,
That I scarce was sure I heard you" — here I opened wide the door; ——
Darkness there and nothing more.

Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,
Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before;
But the silence was unbroken, and the stillness gave no token,
And the only word there spoken was the whispered word, "Lenore?"
This I whispered, and an echo murmured back the word, "Lenore!" —
Merely this and nothing more.

Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning,
Soon again I heard a tapping somewhat louder than before.
"Surely," said I, "surely that is something at my window lattice;
Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore —
Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore;—
'Tis the wind and nothing more!"

Open here I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter,
In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly days of yore;
Not the least obeisance made he; not a minute stopped or stayed he;
But, with mien of lord or lady, perched above my chamber door —
Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door —
Perched, and sat, and nothing more.

Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,
By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore,
"Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou," I said, "art sure no craven,
Ghastly grim and ancient Raven wandering from the Nightly shore —
Tell me what thy lordly name is on the Night's Plutonian shore!"
Quoth the Raven "Nevermore."

Much I marvelled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse so plainly,
Though its answer little meaning — little relevancy bore;
For we cannot help agreeing that no living human being
Ever yet was blessed with seeing bird above his chamber door —
Bird or beast upon the sculptured bust above his chamber door,
With such name as "Nevermore."

But the Raven, sitting lonely on the placid bust, spoke only
That one word, as if his soul in that one word he did outpour.
Nothing farther then he uttered — not a feather then he fluttered —
Till I scarcely more than muttered "Other friends have flown before —
On the morrow he will leave me, as my Hopes have flown before."
Then the bird said "Nevermore."

Startled at the stillness broken by reply so aptly spoken,
"Doubtless," said I, "what it utters is its only stock and store
Caught from some unhappy master whom unmerciful Disaster
Followed fast and followed faster till his songs one burden bore —
Till the dirges of his Hope that melancholy burden bore
Of 'Never — nevermore'."

But the Raven still beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,
Straight I wheeled a cushioned seat in front of bird, and bust and door;
Then, upon the velvet sinking, I betook myself to linking
Fancy unto fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore —
What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt, and ominous bird of yore
Meant in croaking "Nevermore."

This I sat engaged in guessing, but no syllable expressing
To the fowl whose fiery eyes now burned into my bosom's core;
This and more I sat divining, with my head at ease reclining
On the cushion's velvet lining that the lamp-light gloated o'er,
But whose velvet-violet lining with the lamp-light gloating o'er,
She shall press, ah, nevermore!

Then, methought, the air grew denser, perfumed from an unseen censer
Swung by seraphim whose foot-falls tinkled on the tufted floor.
"Wretch," I cried, "thy God hath lent thee — by these angels he hath sent thee
Respite — respite and nepenthe, from thy memories of Lenore;
Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore!"
Quoth the Raven "Nevermore."

"Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil! — prophet still, if bird or devil! —
Whether Tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee here ashore,
Desolate yet all undaunted, on this desert land enchanted —
On this home by Horror haunted — tell me truly, I implore —
Is there — is there balm in Gilead? — tell me — tell me, I implore!"
Quoth the Raven "Nevermore."

"Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil! — prophet still, if bird or devil!
By that Heaven that bends above us — by that God we both adore —
Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn,
It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore —
Clasp a rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore."
Quoth the Raven "Nevermore."

"Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!" I shrieked, upstarting —
"Get thee back into the tempest and the Night's Plutonian shore!
Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken!
Leave my loneliness unbroken! — quit the bust above my door!
Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!"
Quoth the Raven "Nevermore."

And the Raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting
On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;
And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming,
And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;
And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor
Shall be lifted — nevermore!

January 29 Events

* 904 – Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed antipope Christopher.
* 1676 – Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia.
* 1814 – France defeats Russia and Prussia in the Battle of Brienne.
* 1819 – Stamford Raffles lands on the island of Singapore.
* 1834 – US President Andrew Jackson orders first use of federal soldiers to suppress a labor dispute.
* 1845 – "The Raven" is published in the New York Evening Mirror, the first publication with the name of the author, Edgar Allan Poe
* 1850 – Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress.
* 1856 – Queen Victoria institutes the Victoria Cross.
* 1861 – Kansas is admitted as the 34th U.S. state.
* 1863 – Bear River Massacre.
* 1886 – Karl Benz patents the first successful gasoline-driven automobile.
* 1891 – Liliuokalani is proclaimed Queen of Hawaii, its last monarch.
* 1900 – The American League is organized in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with 8 founding teams.
* 1916 – World War I: Paris is first bombed by German zeppelins.
* 1918 – Ukrainian-Soviet War: The Bolshevik Red Army, on its way to besiege Kiev, is met by a small group of military students at the Battle of Kruty.
* 1918 – Ukrainian-Soviet War: An armed uprising organized by the Bolsheviks in anticipation of the encroaching Red Army begins at the Kiev Arsenal, which will be put down six days later.
* 1936 – The first inductees into the Baseball Hall of Fame are announced.
* 1940 – Three trains on the Sakurajima Line, in Osaka, Japan, collide and explode while approaching Ajikawaguchi Station. 181 people are killed.
* 1943 – The first day of the Battle of Rennell Island, U.S. cruiser Chicago is torpedoed and heavily damaged by Japanese bombers.
* 1944 – World War II: The Battle of Cisterna takes place in central Italy.
* 1944 – World War II: Approximately 38 men, women, and children die in the Koniuchy massacre in Poland.
* 1944 – In Bologna, Italy, the Anatomical Theatre of the Archiginnasio is destroyed in an air-raid.
* 1963 – The first inductees into the Pro Football Hall of Fame are announced.
* 1967 – The "ultimate high" of the hippie era, the Mantra-Rock Dance, takes place in San Francisco and features Janis Joplin, Grateful Dead, and Allen Ginsberg.
* 1979 – Brenda Spencer kills two people and wounds eight at the Grover Cleveland Elementary School shootings.
* 1985 – Final recording session of We Are The World, by the supergroup USA for Africa.
* 1989 – Hungary establishes diplomatic relations with South Korea, making it the first Eastern Bloc nation to do so
* 1991 – Gulf War: The Battle of Khafji, the first major ground engagement of the war, as well as its deadliest, begins.
* 1996 – President Jacques Chirac announces a "definitive end" to French nuclear weapons testing.
* 1996 – La Fenice, Venice's opera house, is destroyed by fire.
* 1998 – In Birmingham, Alabama, a bomb explodes at an abortion clinic, killing one and severely wounding another. Serial bomber Eric Robert Rudolph is suspected as the culprit.
* 2001 – Thousands of student protesters in Indonesia storm parliament and demand that President Abdurrahman Wahid resign due to alleged involvement in corruption scandals.
* 2002 – In his State of the Union Address, President George W. Bush describes "regimes that sponsor terror" as an Axis of Evil, in which he includes Iraq, Iran and North Korea.
* 2005 – The first direct commercial flights from mainland China (from Guangzhou) to Taiwan since 1949 arrived in Taipei. Shortly afterwards, a China Airlines flight lands in Beijing.

January 29 Birthdays

* 1584 – Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange (d. 1647)
* 1632 – Johann Georg Graevius, German classical scholar and critic (d. 1703)
* 1688 – Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish scientist and philosopher (d. 1772)
* 1711 – Giuseppe Bonno, Austrian composer (d. 1788)
* 1715 – Georg Christoph Wagenseil, Austrian composer (d. 1777)
* 1717 – Jeffrey Amherst, British military leader (d. 1797)
* 1718 – Paul Rabaut, French Huguenot pastor (d. 1794)
* 1737 – Thomas Paine, English-born American patriot (d. 1809)
* 1749 – King Christian VII of Denmark (d. 1808)
* 1754 – Moses Cleaveland, founder of Cleveland (d. 1806)
* 1756 – Henry Lee III, American General (d. 1818)
* 1761 – Albert Gallatin, Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, and 4th United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. 1849)
* 1782 – Daniel Auber, French composer (d. 1871)
* 1801 – Horatia Nelson, daughter of Emma Hamilton and Horatio Nelson (d. 1881)
* 1810 – Ernst Kummer, German mathematician (d. 1893)
* 1843 – William McKinley, American politician, 39th Governor of Ohio, and 25th President of the United States (d. 1901)
* 1846 – Karol Olszewski, Polish scientist (d. 1915)
* 1860 – Anton Chekhov, Russian writer (d. 1904)
* 1862 – Frederick Delius, English composer (d. 1934)
* 1866 – Julio Peris Brell, Spanish painter (d. 1944)
* 1866 – Romain Rolland, French writer, Nobel Laureate (d. 1944)
* 1867 – Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, Spanish writer (d. 1928)
* 1874 – John D. Rockefeller Jr., American entrepreneur (d. 1960)
* 1876 – Havergal Brian, British composer (d. 1972)
* 1877 – Georges Catroux, French general (d. 1969)
* 1880 – W. C. Fields, American actor (d. 1946)
* 1888 – Sydney Chapman, British mathematician and geophysicist (d. 1970)
* 1891 – Elizaveta Gerdt, Russian ballerina (d. 1975)
* 1891 – R. Norris Williams, American survivor of the RMS Titanic sinking (d. 1968)
* 1895 – Muna Lee, American poet (d. 1965)
* 1901 – Allen B. DuMont, American scientist and inventor (d. 1965)
* 1905 – Barnett Newman, American painter (d. 1970)
* 1910 – Colin Middleton, Irish artist (d. 1983)
* 1911 – Peter von Siemens, German industrialist (d. 1986)
* 1913 – Victor Mature, American actor (d. 1999)
* 1913 – Daniel Taradash, American screenwriter (d. 2003)
* 1913 – Peter von Zahn, German journalist and writer (d. 2001)
* 1915 – Bill Peet, American children's book illustrator
* 1915 – John Serry, Sr., American musician and arranger (d. 2003)
* 1918 – John Forsythe, American actor (d. 2010)
* 1920 – José Luis de Vilallonga, Spanish aristocrat (d. 2007)
* 1921 – Anthony George, American actor (d. 2005)
* 1922 – Gerda Steinhoff, Nazi concentration camp supervisor (d. 1946)
* 1923 – Paddy Chayefsky, American writer (d. 1981)
* 1923 – Ivo Robić, Croatian singer and songwriter (d. 2000)
* 1924 – Marcelle Ferron, French-Canadian painter and stained glass artist (d. 2001)
* 1924 – Luigi Nono, Italian composer (d. 1990)
* 1924 – Peter Voulkos, American artist (d. 2002)
* 1926 – Franco Cerri, Italian musician
* 1926 – Abdus Salam, Pakistani physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1996)
* 1927 – Edward Abbey, American author and environmentalist (d. 1989)
* 1928 – Lee Shau Kee, Hong Kong property developer
* 1930 – Derek Bailey, English guitar virtuoso (d. 2005)
* 1930 – John Junkin, English radio, television and film performer (d. 2006)
* 1931 – Jim Baumer, Tulsa, Oklahoma
* 1931 – Ferenc Madl, President of Hungary
* 1932 – George Allen, English footballer
* 1932 – Tommy Taylor, English footballer (d. 1958)
* 1933 – Sacha Distel, French singer and guitarist (d. 2004)
* 1933 – Hugo Herrestrup, Danish actor
* 1933 – Paul Sally, American mathematician
* 1934 – Branko Miljković, Serbian poet (d. 1961)
* 1935 – Roger Payne, New York City
* 1936 – James Jamerson, American bass guitarist for Motown Records (d. 1983)
* 1937 – Bobby Scott, American musician, producer and songwriter (d. 1990)
* 1938 – Shuji Tsurumi, Men's artistic gymnastics
* 1939 – Germaine Greer, Australian writer
* 1940 – Katharine Ross, American actress
* 1940 – Kunimitsu Takahashi, Japanese motorcycle racer and racing driver
* 1941 – Robin Morgan, American feminist and activist
* 1942 – Claudine Longet, French singer and dancer
* 1943 – Tony Blackburn, English disc jockey
* 1944 – Yoweri Museveni, President of Uganda
* 1944 – Andrew Loog Oldham, English rock and roll producer
* 1944 – Patrick Lipton Robinson, Jamaican judge
* 1945 – Jim Nicholson, Irish politician
* 1945 – Tom Selleck, American actor, screenwriter and film producer
* 1946 – Bettye Lavette, American soul singer-songwriter
* 1947 – Linda B. Buck, American scientist, Nobel laureate
* 1947 – David Byron, English singer (Uriah Heep) (d. 1985)
* 1947 – Marián Varga, Slovak musician
* 1948 – Pat Kenny, Irish TV presenter and radio host
* 1948 – Cristina Saralegui, American talk-show host
* 1948 – Marc Singer, Canadian-born actor
* 1949 – Tommi Salmelainen, Helsinki, FIN
* 1949 – Evgeny Lovchev, Russian footballer
* 1950 – Ann Jillian, American actress
* 1950 – Jody Scheckter, South African race car driver
* 1950 – Miklós Vámos, Hungarian writer, television host
* 1951 – Andy Roberts, West Indian cricketer
* 1952 – Klaus-Peter Hanisch, German footballer (d. 2009)
* 1952 – Rupert Hanley, South African cricketer
* 1952 – Tommy Ramone, Hungarian-born musician and record producer (The Ramones)
* 1953 – Peter Baumann, German musician (Tangerine Dream)
* 1953 – Paulin Bordeleau, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1953 – Caesar Cervin, American soccer player
* 1953 – Paul Fusco, American puppeteer, voice-over artist and character actor
* 1953 – Steve March-Tormé, American musician
* 1953 – Lynne McGranger, Australian actress
* 1953 – Ronnie Moore, English footballer
* 1953 – Louie Pérez, American songwriter, percussionist and guitarist
* 1953 – Dwight Takamine, Okinawan-American Hawaii state senator
* 1953 – Teresa Teng, Taiwanese singer (d. 1995)
* 1953 – Charlie Wilson, American singer (The Gap Band)
* 1953 – Hwang Woo-Suk, South Korean biomedical scientist
* 1954 – Terry Kinney, American actor
* 1954 – Richard Manitoba, American singer (The Dictators and MC5)
* 1954 – Doug Risebrough, Canadian ice hockey player, coach and executive
* 1954 – Oprah Winfrey, American talk show host and actress
* 1955 – Eddie Jordan, American basketball player and head coach
* 1956 – Jan Jakub Kolski, Wrocław, Poland
* 1957 – Grazyna Miller, Italian poet, translator, and journalist
* 1957 – Rino Schreuder, Dutch publisher
* 1958 – Glen Cochrane, Cranbrook, BC, CAN
* 1958 – Linda Smith, British comedian (d. 2006)
* 1958 – Stephen Lerner, United Farm Workers of America
* 1959 – Michael Sloane, Los Angeles, California
* 1959 – Mike Foligno, Sudbury, Ontario, CAN
* 1960 – Matthew Ashford, American actor
* 1960 – Gia Carangi, American model (d. 1986)
* 1960 – Sean Kerly, English field hockey player
* 1960 – Greg Louganis, American diver
* 1960 – Steve Sax, American baseball player
* 1960 – J. G. Thirlwell, Australian-born musician
* 1961 – Petra Thumer, German swimmer
* 1961 – Mike Aldrete, Carmel, California
* 1962 – Nicholas Turturro, American actor
* 1963 – Bob Holly, American professional wrestler
* 1963 – Monica Horan, American actress
* 1964 – Andre Reed, American football player
* 1964 – Anna Ryder Richardson, British interior designer and television presenter
* 1965 – Dominik Hašek, Czech ice hockey player
* 1965 – Peter Lundgren, Swedish tennis coach
* 1966 – Romário, Brazilian footballer
* 1967 – Stacey King, American basketball player
* 1967 – Cyril Suk, Czech tennis player
* 1968 – Edward Burns, American actor
* 1968 – Susi Erdmann, German bobsledder and luger
* 1968 – Sora Jung, Korean actress
* 1969 – Hyde, Japanese singer (L'Arc-en-Ciel)
* 1970 – Heather Graham, American actress
* 1970 – Jörg Hoffmann, German swimmer
* 1970 – Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore, Indian shooter
* 1971 – Clare Balding, British sports presenter
* 1972 – Brian Wood, writer and artist of graphic novels
* 1973 – Jason Schmidt, American baseball player
* 1974 – Michael Andersen, Danish basketball player
* 1975 – Sara Gilbert, American actress
* 1976 – Chris Castle, American singer-songwriter
* 1976 – Charles Divins, American model and actor
* 1977 – Justin Hartley, American actor
* 1977 – Chaly Jones, Dutch footballer
* 1978 – Rob Bironas, American football player
* 1978 – Martin Schmitt, German ski jumper
* 1979 – Marvin Agustin, Filipino actor and entrepreneur
* 1979 – Sui Feifei, Chinese basketball player
* 1979 – Andrew Keegan, American actor
* 1979 – April Scott, American actress and model
* 1979 – Andreas Thorstensson, Swedish website developer
* 1979 – Joseph Todd, Arena Football League player
* 1980 – Yael Bar-Zohar, Israeli actress and model
* 1980 – Ingimundur Ingimundarson, Icelandic handball player
* 1980 – Ivan Klasnić, Croatian football player
* 1980 – Jason James Richter, American actor
* 1981 – Rui En, Singaporean actress & singer
* 1981 – Jonny Lang, American musician
* 1981 – Darío Lopilato, Argentine actor
* 1981 – Álex Ubago, Spanish musician
* 1982 – Adam Lambert, American actor and singer
* 1982 – Heidi Mueller, American actress
* 1982 – Irina Shabayeva American fashion designer
* 1983 – Nedžad Sinanović, Bosnian basketball player
* 1985 – Marc Gasol, Spanish basketball player
* 1985 – Mikey Hachey, American musician (Suburban Legends)
* 1985 – Todd Herzog, American reality-show contestant
* 1985 – Isabel Lucas, Australian actress
* 1985 – Athina Onassis, French heiress
* 1986 – Drew Tyler Bell, American actor
* 1986 – Mark Howard, English football player
* 1986 – Jair Jurrjens, Dutch baseball player
* 1986 – Simon Vukčević, Montenegrin footballer
* 1987 – Matthew Wilson, English world rally driver
* 1987 – Alex Avila, American baseball player
* 1988 – Tatyana Chernova, Russian heptathlete
* 1988 – Stephanie Gilmore, Australian surfer
* 1989 – Kevin Shattenkirk, American ice hockey player
* 1991 – Hugh Grosvenor, Earl Grosvenor, son of the Duke of Westminster
* 1993 – Michelle Larcher de Brito, Portuguese tennis player
* 1993 – Kyary Pamyu Pamyu, Japanese model, blogger and recording artist


Saturday, January 28, 2012

January 28, 1986- The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster

The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster occurred on January 28, 1986, when Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the deaths of its seven crew members. The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of central Florida at 11:38 am EST (16:38 UTC). Disintegration of the entire vehicle began after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed at liftoff. The O-ring failure caused a breach in the SRB joint it sealed, allowing pressurized hot gas from within the solid rocket motor to reach the outside and impinge upon the adjacent SRB attachment hardware and external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB's aft attachment and the structural failure of the external tank. Aerodynamic forces promptly broke up the orbiter.

The crew compartment and many other vehicle fragments were eventually recovered from the ocean floor after a lengthy search and recovery operation. Although the exact timing of the death of the crew is unknown, several crew members are known to have survived the initial breakup of the spacecraft. However, the shuttle had no escape system and the astronauts did not survive the impact of the crew compartment with the ocean surface.

The disaster resulted in a 32-month hiatus in the shuttle program and the formation of the Rogers Commission, a special commission appointed by United States President Ronald Reagan to investigate the accident. The Rogers Commission found NASA's organizational culture and decision-making processes had been key contributing factors to the accident. NASA managers had known contractor Morton Thiokol's design of the SRBs contained a potentially catastrophic flaw in the O-rings since 1977, but failed to address it properly. They also disregarded warnings from engineers about the dangers of launching posed by the low temperatures of that morning and had failed to adequately report these technical concerns to their superiors.

Many viewed the launch live because of the presence on the crew of Christa McAuliffe, the first member of the Teacher in Space Project. Media coverage of the accident was extensive: one study reported that 85 percent of Americans surveyed had heard the news within an hour of the accident. The Challenger disaster has been used as a case study in many discussions of engineering safety and workplace ethics.

January 28 Events

# 1077 – Walk to Canossa: The excommunication of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor is lifted.
# 1521 – The Diet of Worms begins, lasting until May 25.
# 1547 – Henry VIII dies. His nine year old son, Edward VI becomes King, and the first Protestant ruler of England.
# 1573 – Articles of the Warsaw Confederation are signed, sanctioning freedom of religion in Poland.
# 1624 – Sir Thomas Warner founds the first British colony in the Caribbean, on the island of Saint Kitts.
# 1724 – The Russian Academy of Sciences is founded in St. Petersburg by Peter the Great, and implemented by Senate decree. It is called the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences until 1917.
# 1754 – Horace Walpole coins the word serendipity in a letter to Horace Mann.
# 1760 – Pownal, Vermont is created by Benning Wentworth as one of the New Hampshire Grants.
# 1813 – Pride and Prejudice is first published in the United Kingdom.
# 1820 – A Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev discovers the Antarctic continent approaching the Antarctic coast.
# 1821 – Alexander Island is first discovered by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen.
# 1846 – The Battle of Aliwal, India, is won by British troops commanded by Sir Harry Smith.
# 1851 – Northwestern University becomes the first chartered university in Illinois.
# 1855 – The first locomotive runs from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean on the Panama Railway.
# 1871 – Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Paris ends in French defeat and an armistice.
# 1878 – Yale Daily News becomes the first daily college newspaper in the United States.
# 1887 – In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, the world's largest snowflakes are reported, 15 inches (38 cm) wide and 8 inches (20 cm) thick.
# 1896 – Walter Arnold of East Peckham, Kent became the first person to be convicted of speeding. He is fined 1 shilling, plus costs, for speeding at 8 mph (13 km/h), thus exceeding the contemporary speed limit of 2 mph (3.2 km/h).
# 1902 – The Carnegie Institution of Washington is founded in Washington, D.C. with a $10 million gift from Andrew Carnegie.
# 1908 – Members of the Portuguese Republican Party fail in their attempted coup d'état against the administrative dictatorship of Prime Minister João Franco.
# 1909 – United States troops leave Cuba with the exception of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base after being there since the Spanish-American War.
# 1915 – An act of the U.S. Congress creates the United States Coast Guard.
# 1917 – Municipally owned streetcars take to the streets of San Francisco, California.
# 1918 – Finnish Civil War: Rebels seized control of the capital, Helsinki, and members of the Senate of Finland go underground.
# 1922 – Knickerbocker Storm, Washington D.C.'s biggest snowfall, causes the city's greatest loss of life when the roof of the Knickerbocker Theatre collapses.
# 1932 – Japanese forces attack Shanghai.
# 1933 – The name Pakistan is coined by Choudhary Rehmat Ali Khan and is accepted by the Indian Muslims who then thereby adopted it further for the Pakistan Movement seeking independence.
# 1934 – The first ski tow in the United States begins operation in Vermont.
# 1935 – Iceland becomes the first Western country to legalize therapeutic abortion.
# 1938 – The World Land Speed Record on a public road is broken by driver Rudolf Caracciola in the Mercedes-Benz W195 at a speed of 432.7 kilometres per hour (268.9 mph).
# 1941 – French-Thai War: Final air battle of the conflict. Japanese-mediated armistice goes into effect later in the day.
# 1945 – World War II: Supplies begin to reach the Republic of China over the newly reopened Burma Road.
# 1956 – Elvis Presley made his first US TV appearance
# 1958 – The Lego company patents the design of its Lego bricks, still compatible with bricks produced today.
# 1958 – The last episode of the British radio comedy programme Goon Show was broadcast.
# 1964 – An unarmed USAF T-39 Sabreliner on a training mission is shot down over Erfurt, East Germany, by a Soviet MiG-19.
# 1965 – The current design of the Flag of Canada is chosen by an act of Parliament.
# 1977 – The first day of the Great Lakes Blizzard of 1977, which severely affects and cripples much of Upstate New York, but Buffalo, NY, Syracuse, NY, Watertown, NY, and surrounding areas are most affected, each area accumulating close to 10 feet (3.0 m) of snow on this one day.
# 1980 – USCGC Blackthorn collides with the tanker Capricorn while leaving Tampa Florida and capsizes killing 23 Coast Guard crewmembers.
# 1981 – Ronald Reagan lifts remaining domestic petroleum price and allocation controls in the United States helping to end the 1979 energy crisis and begin the 1980s oil glut.
# 1982 – US Army general James L. Dozier is rescued by Italian anti-terrorism forces from captivity by the Red Brigades.
# 1984 – Tropical Storm Domoina makes landfall in southern Mozambique, eventually causing 214 deaths and some of the most severe flooding so far recorded in the region.
# 1985 – Supergroup USA for Africa (United Support of Artists for Africa) records the hit single We Are the World, to help raise funds for Ethiopian famine relief.
# 1986 – Space Shuttle program: STS-51-L mission – Space Shuttle Challenger breaks apart after liftoff killing all seven astronauts on board.
# 1988 – The last episode of the British TV series Yes, Prime Minister, entitled The Tangled Web, was broadcast.
# 2002 – TAME Flight 120, a Boeing 727-100 crashes in the Andes mountains in southern Colombia killing 92.
# 2006 – The roof of one of the buildings at the Katowice International Fair in Chorzów / Katowice, Poland, collapses due to the weight of snow, killing 65 and injuring more than 170 others.
# 2010 – Five murderers of President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman of Bangladesh: Lieutenant Colonel Syed Faruq Rahman, Lieutenant Colonel Sultan Shahriar Rashid Khan, Major AKM Mohiuddin Ahmed, Major Bazlul Huda and Lieutenant Colonel Mohiuddin Ahmed are hanged.
# 2011 – Hundreds of thousands of protesters filled up the Egyptian's streets in demonstrations referred to as "Friday of Anger" against the Mubarak regime.

January 28 Birthdays

* 1225 – Saint Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274)
* 1312 – Queen Joan II of Navarre (d. 1349)
* 1457 – King Henry VII of England (d. 1509)
* 1540 – Ludolph van Ceulen, German mathematician (d. 1610)
* 1582 – John Barclay, Scottish writer (d. 1621)
* 1600 – Pope Clement IX (d. 1669)
* 1608 – Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Italian physiologist and physicist (d. 1679)
* 1611 – Johannes Hevelius, Polish-born astronomer (d. 1687)
* 1622 – Adrien Auzout, French astronomer (d. 1691)
* 1701 – Charles Marie de La Condamine, French mathematician and geographer (d. 1774)
* 1706 – John Baskerville, English printer (d. 1775)
* 1712 – Tokugawa Ieshige, Japanese shogun (d. 1761)
* 1717 – Mustafa III, Ottoman sultan (d. 1774)
* 1719 – Johann Elias Schlegel, German critic and poet (d. 1749)
* 1755 – Samuel Thomas von Sömmering, German physician (d. 1830)
* 1784 – George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, Prime Minister of the UK (d. 1860)
* 1818 – George S. Boutwell, American politician, 20th Governor of Massachusetts and later the 28th United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. 1905)
* 1822 – Alexander Mackenzie, 2nd Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1892)
* 1833 – Charles George 'Chinese' Gordon, British soldier and administrator (d. 1885)
* 1841 – Henry Morton Stanley, Welsh-born explorer and journalist (d. 1904)
* 1853 – José Martí, Cuban revolutionary (d. 1895)
* 1857 – William Seward Burroughs I, American inventor (d. 1898)
* 1858 – Tannatt William Edgeworth David, KBE, DSO, FRS, Welsh-born Australian geologist and Antarctic explorer (d. 1934)
* 1861 – Julián Felipe, Filipino musician (d. 1944)
* 1863 – Ernest William Christmas, Australian painter (d. 1918)
* 1864 – Charles W. Nash, American automobile entrepreneur (d. 1948)
* 1864 – Herbert Akroyd Stuart, English inventor (d. 1927)
* 1865 – Lala Lajpat Rai, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1928)
* 1865 – Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg, first president of Finland (d. 1952)
* 1873 – Colette, French writer (d. 1954)
* 1874 – Vsevolod Meyerhold, Russian theatre director (d. 1940)
* 1880 – Herbert Strudwick, English cricketer (d. 1970)
* 1884 – Auguste Piccard, Swiss physicist (d. 1962)
* 1886 – Marthe Bibesco, Romanian writer (d. 1973)
* 1886 – Hidetsugu Yagi, Japanese electrical engineer (d. 1976)
* 1887 – Arthur Rubinstein, Polish pianist (d. 1982)
* 1890 – Robert Stroud, American convict, the Birdman of Alcatraz (d. 1963)
* 1891 – Bill Doak, American baseball player (d. 1954)
* 1892 – Ernst Lubitsch, German-born film director (d. 1947)
* 1897 – Valentin Kataev, Russian writer (d. 1986)
* 1899 – Elias Simojoki, Finnish clergyman and politician (d. 1940)
* 1900 – Alice Neel, American artist (d. 1984)
* 1903 – Aleksander Kamiński, Polish writer (d. 1978)
* 1904 – Canuplin, Filipino magician and bodabil entertainer (d. 1979)
* 1908 – Paul Misraki, French composer and songwriter (d. 1998)
* 1909 – John Thomson, Scottish footballer (d. 1931)
* 1910 – John Banner, Austrian actor (d. 1973)
* 1910 – Arnold Moss, American actor (d. 1989)
* 1911 – Johan van Hulst, Dutch politician
* 1912 – Jackson Pollock, American painter (d. 1956)
* 1915 – Nien Cheng, Chinese-born American writer (d. 2009)
* 1918 – Harry Corbett, English puppeteer (Sooty) (d. 1989)
* 1918 – Trevor Skeet, New Zealand-born British politician (d. 2004)
* 1919 – Francis Gabreski, American fighter pilot (d. 2002)
* 1922 – Robert W. Holley, American biochemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1993)
* 1924 – Marcel Broodthaers, Belgian painter (d. 1976)
* 1925 – Scotty Bloch, American stage and television actress
* 1927 – Per Oscarsson, Swedish actor (d. 2010)
* 1927 – Ronnie Scott, British tenor saxophonist and club owner (d. 1996)
* 1927 – Hiroshi Teshigahara, Japanese director (d. 2001)
* 1929 – Acker Bilk, English jazz clarinetist
* 1929 – Claes Oldenburg, Swedish-born artist
* 1930 – Kurt Biedenkopf, German politician
* 1933 – Jack Hill, American film director
* 1934 – Juan Manuel Bordeu, Argentine racing driver (d. 1990)
* 1934 – Mitr Chaibancha, Thai actor (d. 1970)
* 1935 – David Lodge, English author
* 1936 – Alan Alda, American actor, writer, and director
* 1936 – Ismail Kadare, Albanian writer
* 1938 – Leonid Zhabotynsky, Ukrainian weightlifter
* 1939 – John M. Fabian, NASA astronaut
* 1940 – Carlos Slim, Mexican businessman
* 1941 – Joel Crothers, American actor (d. 1985)
* 1941 – Osbourne 'King Tubby' Ruddock, Jamaican musician and sound engineer (d. 1989)
* 1943 – John Beck, American actor
* 1943 – Paul Henderson, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1943 – Dick Taylor, English musician (The Rolling Stones and The Pretty Things)
* 1944 – Susan Howard, American actress
* 1944 – John Tavener, English composer
* 1945 – Karen Lynn Gorney, American actress
* 1945 – Marthe Keller, Swiss actress
* 1945 – John Perkins, American author and activist
* 1945 – Robert Wyatt, English musician
* 1947 – Jeanne Shaheen, American politician, senior senator of New Hampshire
* 1948 – Charles Taylor, former (22nd) President of Liberia
* 1949 – Tom Downey, former American Congressman
* 1949 – Gregg Popovich, American basketball coach
* 1950 – Barbi Benton, American actress
* 1950 – David C. Hilmers, NASA astronaut
* 1950 – Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah, King of Bahrain
* 1950 – Bob Hay, American songwriter and musician
* 1951 – Brian Bilbray, American politician
* 1951 – Leonid Kadeniuk, Ukrainian cosmonaut
* 1953 – Colin Campbell, Canadian ice hockey player and executive
* 1953 – Chris Carter, English musician (Throbbing Gristle, Chris & Cosey)
* 1954 – Rick Warren, American pastor and author
* 1955 – Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France
* 1957 – Mark Napier, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1957 – Frank Skinner, British comedian
* 1957 – Nick Price, Zimbabwean golfer
* 1959 – Burkhard Dallwitz, German-born composer
* 1959 – Frank Darabont, American filmmaker
* 1959 – Megan McDonald, American children's literature author
* 1959 – Randi Rhodes, radio personality
* 1959 – Dave Sharp, Welsh guitarist (The Alarm)
* 1960 – Robert von Dassanowsky, American historian, writer, and producer
* 1961 – Arnaldur Indridason, Icelandic writer
* 1961 – Normand Rochefort, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1962 – Keith Hamilton Cobb, American actor
* 1962 – Creflo Dollar, American televangelist
* 1962 – Sam Phillips, American singer
* 1963 – Dan Spitz, American musician, guitarist (Anthrax)
* 1965 – Lynda Boyd, American actress
* 1967 – Jan Lamb, Chinese disc jockey & comedian
* 1968 – Sarah McLachlan, Canadian singer and songwriter
* 1968 – DJ Muggs, American musician (Cypress Hill)
* 1968 – Rakim (William Michael Griffin Jr.), American rapper
* 1969 – Kathryn Morris, American actress
* 1969 – Mo Rocca, American writer and comedian
* 1969 – Linda Sanchez, American politician
* 1971 – Anthony Hamilton, American soul singer
* 1972 – Nicky Southall, English footballer
* 1974 – Tony Delk, American basketball player
* 1974 – Jermaine Dye, American baseball player
* 1974 – Magglio Ordóñez, Venezuelan baseball player
* 1975 – Terri Colombino, American actress
* 1975 – Tanya Chua, Singaporean singer
* 1975 – Lee Latchford-Evans, English singer
* 1975 – Anne Montminy, Canadian diver
* 1975 – Junior Spivey, American baseball player
* 1976 – Lee Ingleby, British actor
* 1976 – Emiko Kado, Japanese wrestler (d. 1999)
* 1976 – Mark Madsen, American basketball player
* 1976 – Jarrod Montague, American drummer (Taproot)
* 1976 – Rick Ross, rapper
* 1976 – Miltiadis Sapanis, Greek footballer
* 1977 – Daunte Culpepper, American football player
* 1977 – Matt DeVries, American guitarist (Chimaira)
* 1977 – Joey Fatone, American singer (*NSYNC)
* 1977 – Lyle Overbay, American baseball player
* 1977 – Takuma Sato, Japanese racing driver
* 1978 – Gianluigi Buffon, Italian footballer
* 1978 – Jamie Carragher, English footballer
* 1978 – Papa Bouba Diop, Senegalese footballer
* 1978 – Stephen Farrelly, Irish professional wrestler
* 1979 – Ali Boulala, Swedish skateboarder
* 1980 – Nick Carter, American singer (Backstreet Boys)
* 1980 – Yasuhito Endo, Japanese footballer
* 1980 – Jesse James Hollywood, American drug dealer and fugitive
* 1981 – Elijah Wood, American actor
* 1984 – Stephen Gostkowski, American football player
* 1984 – Andre Iguodala, American basketball player
* 1985 – Daniel Carcillo, Canadian hockey player
* 1985 – J. Cole, American rapper
* 1985 – Arnold Mvuemba, French footballer
* 1985 – Libby Trickett, Australian swimmer
* 1986 – Jessica Ennis, British athlete
* 1986 – Shruti Haasan, Indian actress
* 1987 – Chelsea Brummet, American actress
* 1988 – Paul Henry, English footballer
* 1989 – Siem de Jong, Dutch footballer
* 1989 – Josh Coulson, English footballer
* 1990 – Kalifa Fai-Fai Loa, New Zealand rugby league footballer
* 1990 – Alexandra Krosney, American actress
* 1991 – Calum Worthy, Canadian actor and musician
* 1992 – Andrei Savchenko, Russian professional footballer
* 1993 – Will Poulter, English actor
* 1998 – Ariel Winter, American actress (Modern Family)

Friday, January 27, 2012

January 27, 1606- The Gunpowder Plot Trial Begins

The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby.

The plan was to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of England's Parliament on 5 November 1605, as the prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands during which James's nine-year-old daughter, Princess Elizabeth, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state. Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed. His fellow plotters were John Wright, Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, Robert Wintour, Christopher Wright, John Grant, Sir Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. Fawkes, who had 10 years of military experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives.

The plot was revealed to the authorities in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on 26 October 1605. During a search of the House of Lords at about midnight on 4 November 1605, Fawkes was discovered guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder—enough to reduce the House of Lords to rubble—and arrested. Most of the conspirators fled from London as they learnt of the plot's discovery, trying to enlist support along the way. Several made a stand against the pursuing Sheriff of Worcester and his men at Holbeche House; in the ensuing battle Catesby was one of those shot and killed. At their trial on 27 January 1606, eight of the survivors, including Fawkes, were convicted and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered.

Details of the assassination attempt were allegedly known by the principal Jesuit of England, Father Henry Garnet. Although Garnet was convicted and sentenced to death, doubt has since been cast on how much he really knew of the plot. As its existence was revealed to him through confession, Garnet was prevented from informing the authorities by the absolute confidentiality of the confessional. Although anti-Catholic legislation was introduced soon after the plot's discovery, many important and loyal Catholics retained high office during King James I's reign. The thwarting of the Gunpowder Plot was commemorated for many years afterwards by special sermons and other public events such as the ringing of church bells, which have evolved into the Bonfire Night of today.

The surviving conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot were arraigned in Westminster Hall on January 27, 1606. Seven of the prisoners were taken from the Tower to the Star Chamber by barge. Thomas Bates, who was considered lower class, was brought from the Gatehouse Prison. Some of the prisoners were reportedly despondent, but others were nonchalant, even smoking tobacco. The King and his family, hidden from view, were among the many who watched the trial. The Lords Commissioners present were the Earls of Suffolk, Worcester, Northampton, Devonshire, and Salisbury. Sir John Popham was Lord Chief Justice, Sir Thomas Fleming was Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and two Justices, Sir Thomas Walmsley and Sir Peter Warburton, sat as Justices of the Common Pleas. The list of traitors' names was read aloud, beginning with those of the priests: Henry Garnet, Oswald Tesimond, and John Gerard.

The first to speak was the Speaker of the House of Commons (later Master of the Rolls), Sir Edward Philips, who described the intent behind the plot in lurid detail. He was followed by the Attorney-General Sir Edward Coke, who began with a long speech—the content of which was heavily influenced by Salisbury—that included a denial that the King had ever made any promises to the Catholics. William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle's part in the discovery of the plot was welcomed, and denouncements of the 1603 mission to Spain featured strongly. Guy Fawkes's protestations that Gerard knew nothing of the plot were omitted from Coke's speech. The foreign powers, when mentioned, were accorded due respect, but the priests were accursed, their behavior analyzed and criticized wherever possible. There was little doubt, according to Coke, that the plot had been invented by the Jesuits. Garnet's meeting with Robert Catesby, at which the former was said to have absolved the latter of any blame in the plot, was proof enough that the Jesuits were central to the conspiracy; according to Coke the Gunpowder Plot would always be known as the Jesuit Treason. Coke spoke with feeling of the probable fate of the Queen and the rest of the King's family, and of the innocents who would have been caught up in the explosion.

Each of the condemned, said Coke, would be drawn backwards to his death, by a horse, his head near the ground. He was to be "put to death halfway between heaven and earth as unworthy of both". His genitals would be cut off and burnt before his eyes, and his bowels and heart then removed. Then he would be decapitated, and the dismembered parts of his body displayed so that they might become "prey for the fowls of the air". Confessions and declarations from the prisoners were then read aloud, and finally the prisoners were allowed to speak. Rookwood claimed that he had been drawn into the plot by Catesby, "whom he loved above any worldy man". Thomas Wintour begged to be hanged for himself and his brother, so that his brother might be spared. Fawkes explained his not guilty plea as ignorance of certain aspects of the indictment. Keyes appeared to accept his fate, Bates and Robert Wintour begged for mercy, and Grant explained his involvement as "a conspiracy intended but never effected". Only Digby, tried on a separate indictment, pleaded guilty, insisting that the King had reneged upon promises of toleration for Catholics, and that affection for Catesby and love of the Catholic cause mitigated his actions. He sought death by the axe and begged mercy from the King for his young family. His defense was in vain; his arguments were rebuked by Coke and Northumberland, and along with his seven co-conspirators, he was found guilty by the jury of high treason. Digby shouted "If I may but hear any of your lordships say, you forgive me, I shall go more cheerfully to the gallows." The response was short: "God forgive you, and we do."

Garnet may have been questioned on as many as 23 occasions. His response to the threat of the rack was "Minare ista pueris [Threats are only for boys]", and he denied having encouraged Catholics to pray for the success of the "Catholic Cause". His interrogators resorted to the forgery of correspondence between Garnet and other Catholics, but to no avail. His jailers then allowed him to talk with another priest in a neighbouring cell, with eavesdroppers listening to every word. Eventually Garnet let slip a crucial piece of information, that there was only one man who could testify that he had any knowledge of the plot. Under torture Garnet admitted that he had heard of the plot from fellow Jesuit Oswald Tesimond, who had learnt of it in confession from Catesby. Garnet was charged with high treason and tried in the Guildhall on 28 March, in a trial lasting from 8 am until 7 pm. According to Coke, Garnet instigated the plot: "[Garnet] hath many gifts and endowments of nature, by art learned, a good linguist and, by profession, a Jesuit and a Superior as indeed he is Superior to all his predecessors in devilish treason, a Doctor of Dissimulation, Deposing of Princes, Disposing of Kingdoms, Daunting and deterring of subjects, and Destruction." Garnet refuted all the charges against him, and explained the Catholic position on such matters, but he was nevertheless found guilty and sentenced to death.

January 27 Events

* 98 – Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva.
* 661 – The Rashidun Caliphate ends with death of Ali.
* 1142 – Execution, believed wrongful, of noted Song Dynasty General Yue Fei.
* 1186 – Henry VI, the son and heir of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, marries Constance of Sicily.
* 1343 – Pope Clement VI issues the Bull Unigenitus.
* 1593 – The Vatican opens seven year trial of scholar Giordano Bruno.
* 1606 – Gunpowder Plot: The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins, ending with their execution on January 31.
* 1695 – Mustafa II becomes the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Ahmed II. Mustafa rules until his abdication in 1703.
* 1785 – The University of Georgia is founded, the first public university in the United States.
* 1825 – The U.S. Congress approves Indian Territory (in what is present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the "Trail of Tears".
* 1868 – Boshin War: The Battle of Toba-Fushimi between forces of the Tokugawa shogunate and pro-Imperial factions begins, which will end in defeat for the shogunate, and is a pivotal point in the Meiji Restoration.
* 1870 – The Kappa Alpha Theta fraternity is founded at DePauw University.
* 1888 – The National Geographic Society is founded in Washington, D.C..
* 1909 – The Young Left is founded in Norway.
* 1927 – Ibn Saud takes the title of King of Nejd.
* 1939 – First flight of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning.
* 1943 – World War II: The VIII Bomber Command dispatched ninety-one B-17s and B-24s to attack the U-Boat construction yards at Wilhemshafen, Germany. The first American bombing attack on Germany.
* 1944 – World War II: The 900-day Siege of Leningrad is lifted.
* 1945 – World War II: The Red Army liberates the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp in Poland.
* 1951 – Nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site begins with a one-kiloton bomb dropped on Frenchman Flat.
* 1961 – Soviet submarine S-80 sinks with all hands lost.
* 1967 – Astronauts Gus Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chaffee are killed in a fire during a test of their Apollo 1 spacecraft at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida.
* 1967 – The United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union sign the Outer Space Treaty in Washington, D.C., banning deployment of nuclear weapons in space, and limiting use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes.
* 1973 – The Paris Peace Accords officially end the Vietnam War. Colonel William Nolde is killed in action becoming the conflict's last recorded American combat casualty.
* 1974 – The Brisbane River breaches its banks causing the largest flood to affect the city of Brisbane in the 20th Century
* 1980 – Through cooperation between the U.S. and Canadian governments, six American diplomats secretly escape hostilities in Iran in the culmination of the Canadian caper.
* 1983 – The pilot shaft of the Seikan Tunnel, the world's longest sub-aqueous tunnel (53.85 km) between the Japanese islands of Honshū and Hokkaidō, breaks through.
* 1984 – Pop singer Michael Jackson suffers second degree burns to his scalp during the filming of a Pepsi commercial in the Shrine Auditorium.
* 1993 – American-born sumo wrestler Akebono Tarō becomes the first foreigner to be promoted to the sport's highest rank of yokozuna.
* 1996 – In a military coup Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected president of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane.
* 1996 – Germany first observes International Holocaust Remembrance Day.
* 2002 – An explosion at a military storage facility in Lagos, Nigeria, kills at least 1,100 people and displaces over 20,000 others.
* 2003 – The first selections for the National Recording Registry are announced by the Library of Congress.
* 2006 – Western Union discontinues its Telegram and Commercial Messaging services.
* 2010 – The 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis ends when Porfirio Lobo Sosa becomes the new President of Honduras.

January 27 Birthdays

* 1443 – Albert, Duke of Saxony (d. 1500)
* 1546 – Joachim Friedrich, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1608)
* 1585 – Hendrick Avercamp, Dutch painter (d. 1634)
* 1603 – Harbottle Grimston, English politician (d. 1685)
* 1621 – Thomas Willis, English physician (d. 1675)
* 1662 – Richard Bentley, English classical scholar (d. 1742)
* 1687 – Johann Balthasar Neumann, German architect (d. 1753)
* 1701 – Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, German historian (d. 1790)
* 1708 – Anna Petrovna of Russia (d. 1728)
* 1720 – Samuel Foote, English dramatist (d. 1777)
* 1741 – Hester Thrale, Welsh diarist (d. 1821)
* 1756 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer (d. 1791)
* 1774 – Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, German philosopher (d. 1854)
* 1805 – Maria Anna of Bavaria, Queen consort of Saxony (d. 1877)
* 1805 – Sophie of Bavaria, Archduchess of Austria (d. 1872)
* 1805 – Samuel Palmer, English artist (d. 1881)
* 1806 – Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Spanish composer (d. 1826)
* 1807 – David Strauss, German theologian and writer (d. 1874)
* 1814 – Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, French architect (d. 1879)
* 1821 – John Chivington, American officer (d. 1892)
* 1823 – Edouard Lalo, French composer (d. 1892)
* 1826 – Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, Russian writer (d. 1889)
* 1826 – Richard Taylor, American confederate general (d. 1879)
* 1827 – Nakahama Manjirō, Japanese translator (d. 1898)
* 1832 – Lewis Carroll, English author (d. 1898)
* 1836 – Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer (d. 1895)
* 1841 – Arkhip Kuindzhi, Russian painter (d. 1910)
* 1848 – Togo Heihachiro, Japanese admiral (d. 1934)
* 1850 – John Collier, British writer and painter (d. 1934)
* 1850 – Samuel Gompers, American labor leader (d. 1924)
* 1850 – Edward J. Smith, English captain of the RMS Titanic (d. 1912)
* 1859 – Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany (d. 1941)
* 1875 – Elizabeth Israel, Purported world's oldest person (d. 2003)
* 1885 – Jerome Kern, American composer (d. 1945)
* 1885 – Eduard Künneke, German composer (d. 1953)
* 1885 – Maeda Seison, Japanese painter (d. 1977)
* 1886 – Radhabinod Pal, Indian jurist (d. 1967)
* 1891 – Ilya Ehrenburg, Russian writer (d. 1967)
* 1893 – Soong Ching-ling, Chinese wife of Sun Yat-sen (d. 1981)
* 1895 – Joseph Rosenstock, Polish conductor (d. 1985)
* 1895 – Harry Ruby, American composer (d. 1974)
* 1900 – Hyman Rickover, American admiral (d. 1986)
* 1901 – Willy Fritsch, German actor (d. 1973)
* 1901 – Art Rooney, Pittsburgh Steelers founder and owner (d. 1988)
* 1903 – John Carew Eccles, Australian neuropsychologist, Nobel laureate (d. 1997)
* 1903 – Otto P. Weyland, American military figure (d. 1979)
* 1904 – James J. Gibson, American ecological psychologist (d. 1973)
* 1905 – Howard McNear, American actor (d. 1969)
* 1908 – William Randolph Hearst, Jr., American newspaper magnate (d. 1993)
* 1908 – Oran Page, American musician (jazz trumpeter, singer, and bandleader) (d. 1954)
* 1910 – Edvard Kardelj, Yugoslav Communist politician (d. 1979)
* 1912 – Arne Næss, Norwegian philosopher (d. 2009)
* 1912 – Francis Rogallo, American aeronautical engineer (d. 2009)
* 1915 – Jules Archer, American historian (d. 2008)
* 1915 – Jacques Hnizdovsky, Ukrainian-born artist (d. 1985)
* 1918 – Skitch Henderson, American bandleader (d. 2005)
* 1918 – Elmore James, American blues musician (d. 1963)
* 1918 – William Seawell, United States Army Brigadier General (d. 2005)
* 1919 – Ross Bagdasarian, Sr., American musician (d. 1972)
* 1920 – John Box, British film production designer and art director (d. 2005)
* 1920 – Helmut Zacharias, German violinist (d. 2002)
* 1921 – Donna Reed, American actress (d. 1986)
* 1924 – Sabu Dastagir, Indian actor (d. 1963)
* 1926 – Fritz Spiegl, Austrian journalist (d. 2003)
* 1926 – Ingrid Thulin, Swedish actress (d. 2004)
* 1927 – Jerry Haynes, American actor d. 2011
* 1928 – Michael Craig, British actor
* 1928 – Hans Modrow, German politician, premier of East Germany
* 1929 – Gastón Suárez, Bolivian novelist (d. 1984)
* 1930 – Bobby Blue Bland, American singer
* 1931 – Mordecai Richler, Canadian author (d. 2001)
* 1932 – Boris Shakhlin, Soviet gymnast (d. 2008)
* 1933 – Mohamed Al-Fayed, Egyptian businessman
* 1934 – George Follmer, American racecar driver
* 1936 – Troy Donahue, American actor (d. 2001)
* 1936 – Samuel C. C. Ting, American physicist, Nobel laureate
* 1937 – John Ogdon, English pianist (d. 1989)
* 1937 – Fred Åkerström, Swedish singer
* 1940 – James Cromwell, American actor
* 1940 – Terry Harper, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1940 – Petru Lucinschi, second President of Moldova
* 1941 – Beatrice Tinsley, New Zealand astronomer and cosmologist (d. 1981)
* 1942 – Stewart Raffill, American film director
* 1942 – John Witherspoon, American actor
* 1942 – Kate Wolf, American folk singer and songwriter (d. 1986)
* 1944 – Peter Akinola, Nigerian religious leader
* 1944 – Mairéad Corrigan, Irish activist, Nobel laureate
* 1944 – Nick Mason, English drummer (Pink Floyd)
* 1945 – Harold Cardinal, Cree political leader (d. 2005)
* 1946 – Nedra Talley, American singer (Ronettes)
* 1947 – Björn Afzelius, Swedish singer (d. 1999)
* 1947 – Vyron Polydoras, Greek politician
* 1947 – Cal Schenkel, American artist
* 1948 –Mikhail Baryshnikov, Russian ballet dancer
* 1948 – Valeri Brainin, Russian/German musicologist, music manager, composer, and poet
* 1948 – Jean-Philippe Collard, French pianist
* 1949 – Ethan Mordden, American author
* 1950 – Derek Acorah, English spirit medium
* 1950 – Amos Grunebaum, Israeli-born physician
* 1951 – Brian Downey, Irish musician (drummer) (Thin Lizzy)
* 1952 – "White Shoes" Johnson, American football player
* 1954 – Peter Laird, American comic book artist
* 1954 – Ed Schultz, American radio talk show host
* 1954 – Jōkō Ninomiya, Japanese martial artist
* 1955 – Brian Engblom, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1955 – John G. Roberts, American jurist and the 17th Chief Justice of the United States
* 1955 – Alexander Stuart, British author
* 1955 – Koji Ushikubo, Japanese racing driver
* 1956 – Mimi Rogers, American actress
* 1957 – Janick Gers, British guitarist (Iron Maiden)
* 1957 – Frank Miller, American comic book author and film director
* 1957 – Frank Skinner, English writer and comedian
* 1958 – James Grippando, American novelist
* 1958 – Kadri Mälk, Estonian artist and jewelry designer
* 1958 – Susanna Thompson, American actress
* 1959 – Cris Collinsworth, American football player
* 1959 – Göran Hägglund, Swedish politician
* 1959 – Keith Olbermann, American news anchor & political commentator
* 1960 – Bernd Stieler, German footballer
* 1961 – Dina Bonnevie, Filipino actress
* 1961 – Gillian Gilbert, British musician (New Order)
* 1961 – Narciso Rodriguez, American fashion designer
* 1961 – Margo Timmins, Canadian singer (Cowboy Junkies)
* 1961 – Karen Velez, American model
* 1962 – Roberto Paci Dalò, Italian director and composer
* 1963 – Mark Moraghan, British actor and singer
* 1964 – Bridget Fonda, American actress
* 1964 – Jack Haley, American basketball player
* 1965 – Alan Cumming, Scottish actor
* 1965 – Mike Newell, English football manager
* 1967 – Bobby Deol, Indian actor
* 1967 – Byron Mann, Hong Kong actor
* 1967 – Dave Manson, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1968 – Patrick Blondeau, French footballer
* 1968 – Mike Patton, American singer-songwriter (Faith No More)
* 1968 – Matt Stover, American football player
* 1968 – Deb Talan, American folk singer and songwriter (The Weepies)
* 1968 – Tricky, English rapper
* 1969 – Cornelius, Japanese musician and producer (Flipper's Guitar)
* 1969 – Marc Forster, German-Swiss filmmaker
* 1969 – Michael Kulas, Canadian singer (James)
* 1969 – Patton Oswalt, American actor and writer
* 1970 – Emmanuel Pahud, Swiss-born flautist
* 1971 – Patrice Brisebois, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1971 – Lil Jon, American rapper
* 1971 – Fann Wong, Singaporean actress
* 1972 – Wynne Evans, Welsh operatic tenor
* 1972 – Janine Ilitch, Australian netballer
* 1972 – Mark Owen, English pop singer
* 1972 – Josh Randall, American actor
* 1972 – Keith Wood, Irish rugby player
* 1974 – Ole Einar Bjørndalen, Nordic biathlete
* 1974 – Andrei Pavel, Romanian tennis player
* 1974 – Chaminda Vaas, Sri Lankan cricketer
* 1976 –Clint Ford, American voice actor
* 1976 – Ahn Jung-Hwan, Korean football player
* 1976 – Ruby Lin, Taiwanese actress and singer
* 1976 – Todd MacCulloch, American basketball player
* 1976 – Zoriah Miller, American photojournalist
* 1976 – Fred Taylor, American football player
* 1978 – Pete Laforest, Canadian baseball player
* 1978 – Jake Pavelka, American reality TV star (The Bachelor)
* 1979 – Mario Fatafehi, American football player
* 1979 – Rosamund Pike, British actress
* 1979 – Liesbet Van Breedam, Belgian beach volleyball player
* 1979 – Daniel Vettori, New Zealand cricketer
* 1980 – Chanda Gunn, American ice hockey player
* 1980 – Marat Safin, Russian tennis player
* 1981 – Alicia Molik, Australian tennis player
* 1981 – Tony Woodcock, New Zealand rugby union player
* 1983 – Deon Anderson, American football player
* 1983 – Carlo Colaiacovo, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1983 – Paulo Colaiacovo, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1983 – Gavin Floyd, American baseball player
* 1983 – Tim Kasten, German rugby player
* 1983 – Mike Zagurski, American baseball player
* 1984 – Davetta Sherwood, American actress
* 1986 – Giorgi Loria, Georgian footballer
* 1987 – Lily Donaldson, British model
* 1987 – Katy Rose, American pop singer
* 1988 – Toni Gänge, German footballer
* 1988 – Kerlon, Brazilian footballer
* 1988 – Liu Wen, Chinese model
* 1989 – Daisy Lowe, British model
* 1989 – Carl Magnay, British footballer
* 1989 – Ricky van Wolfswinkel, Dutch footballer
* 1990 – Maria-Elena Papasotiriou, Greek-American figure skater
* 1992 – Stefano Pettinari, Italian professional footballer