Monday, May 14, 2012

The Battle of Agnadello, May 14, 1509

The Battle of Agnadello, also known as Vailà, was one of the more significant battles of the War of the League of Cambrai and one of the major battles of the Italian Wars.

On April 15, 1509, a French army under the command of Louis XII left Milan and invaded Venetian territory. To oppose its advance, Venice had massed a mercenary army near Bergamo, jointly commanded by the Orsini cousins, Bartolomeo d'Alviano and Niccolò di Pitigliano. The Orsini had orders to avoid a direct confrontation with the advancing French, and spent the next several weeks engaged in light skirmishing.

By May 9, however, Louis had crossed the Adda River at Cassano d'Adda. Alviano and Pitigliano, encamped around the town of Treviglio, disagreed on how to deal with Louis, since Alviano wanted to attack the French in defiance of his orders; they finally decided to move south towards the Po River in search of better positions.

On May 14, as the Venetian army moved south, Alviano was confronted by a French detachment under the Seigneur de Chaumont, who had massed his troops around the village of Agnadello. Alviano positioned his forces, numbering around eight thousand, on a ridge overlooking some vineyards. De Chaumont attempted to attack, first with cavalry and then with Swiss pikemen, but the French, forced to march up a hillside crossed with irrigation ditches, which were soon filled with mud from the pouring rain, were unable to breach the Venetian lines.

Pitigliano had been moving ahead of Alviano, and was several miles away when the French began their attack. In reply to Alviano's request for help, he sent a note suggesting that a pitched battle should be avoided, and continued his march south.

Meanwhile, Louis, with the remainder of the French army, had reached Agnadello. The French now surrounded Alviano on three sides and proceeded to destroy his forces over the next three hours. The Venetian cavalry collapsed and fled, and Alviano himself was wounded and captured. Of his command, more than four thousand were killed.

Although Pitigliano had avoided engaging the French directly, news of the battle reached him by that evening, and the majority of his forces had deserted by morning. Faced with the continued advance of the French army, he hurriedly retreated towards Treviso and Venice. Louis then proceeded to occupy the remainder of Lombardy.

The battle is mentioned in Machiavelli's "The Prince", noting that in one day, the Venetians "lost what it had taken them eight hundred years' exertion to conquer."

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

April 25 in History

* 404 BC – Peloponnesian War: Lysander's Spartan Armies defeated the Athenians and the war ends.
* 1134 – The name Zagreb was mentioned for the first time in the Felician Charter relating to the establishment of the Zagreb Bishopric around 1094.
* 1607 – Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar.
* 1644 – The Chongzhen Emperor, the last Emperor of Ming Dynasty China, commits suicide during a peasant rebellion led by Li Zicheng.
* 1707 – The Habsburg army is defeated by Bourbon army at Almansa (Spain) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
* 1792 – Highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier becomes the first person executed by guillotine.
* 1792 – La Marseillaise (the French national anthem) is composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle.
* 1804 – The western Georgian kingdom of Imereti accepts the suzerainty of the Russian Empire
* 1829 – Charles Fremantle arrives in HMS Challenger off the coast of modern-day Western Australia prior to declaring the Swan River Colony for the United Kingdom.
* 1846 – Thornton Affair: Open conflict begins over the disputed border of Texas, triggering the Mexican-American War.
* 1847 – The last survivors of the Donner Party are out of the wilderness.
* 1849 – The Governor General of Canada, Lord Elgin, signs the Rebellion Losses Bill, outraging Montreal's English population and triggering the Montreal Riots.
* 1859 – British and French engineers break ground for the Suez Canal.
* 1861 – American Civil War: The Union Army arrives in Washington, D.C.
* 1862 – American Civil War: Forces under Union Admiral David Farragut demand the surrender of the Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana.
* 1864 – American Civil War: The Battle of Marks' Mills.
* 1898 – Spanish-American War: The United States declares war on Spain.
* 1901 – New York becomes the first U.S. state to require automobile license plates.
* 1915 – World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli begins—The invasion of the Turkish Gallipoli Peninsula by Australian, British, French and New Zealand troops begins with landings at Anzac Cove and Cape Helles.
* 1916 – Easter Rebellion: The United Kingdom declares martial law in Ireland.
* 1916 – Anzac Day is commemorated for the first time on the first anniversary of the landing at Anzac Cove.
* 1920 – At the San Remo conference, the principal Allied Powers of World War I adopt a resolution to determine the allocation of Class "A" League of Nations mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East.
* 1938 – U.S. Supreme Court delivers its opinion in Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins and overturns a century of federal common law.
* 1939 – DC Comics publishes its second major superhero in Detective Comics #27; he is Batman, one of the most popular comic book superheroes of all time.
* 1943 – The Demyansk Shield for German troops in commemoration of Demyansk Pocket is instituted.
* 1944 – The United Negro College Fund is incorporated.
* 1945 – Elbe Day: United States and Soviet troops meet in Torgau along the River Elbe, cutting the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany in two, a milestone in the approaching end of World War II in Europe.
* 1945 – The Nazi occupation army surrenders and leaves Northern Italy after a general partisan insurrection by the Italian resistance movement; the puppet fascist regime dissolves and Benito Mussolini tries to escape. This day is taken as symbolic of the Liberation of Italy.
* 1945 – Fifty nations gather in San Francisco, California to begin the United Nations Conference on International Organizations.
* 1945 – The last German troops retreat from Finland's soil in Lapland, ending the Lapland War. Military acts of Second World War end in Finland.
* 1953 – Francis Crick and James D. Watson publish Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid describing the double helix structure of DNA.
* 1959 – The St. Lawrence Seaway, linking the North American Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean, officially opens to shipping.
* 1960 – The U.S. Navy submarine USS Triton completes the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.
* 1961 – Robert Noyce is granted a patent for an integrated circuit.
* 1965 – Teenage sniper Michael Andrew Clark kills three and wounds six others shooting from a hilltop along Highway 101 just south of Santa Maria, California.
* 1966 – The city of Tashkent is destroyed by a huge earthquake.
* 1972 – Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive – The North Vietnamese 320th Division forces 5,000 South Vietnamese troops to retreat and traps about 2,500 others northwest of Kontum.
* 1974 – Carnation Revolution: A leftist military coup in Portugal overthrows the Estado Novo regime and eventually establishes a democratic government.
* 1975 – As North Vietnamese forces close in on the South Vietnamese capital Saigon, the Australian Embassy is closed and evacuated, almost ten years to the day since the first Australian troop commitment to South Vietnam.
* 1981 – More than 100 workers are exposed to radiation during repairs of a nuclear power plant in Tsuruga, Japan.
* 1982 – Israel completes its withdrawal from the Sinai peninsula per the Camp David Accords.
* 1983 – American schoolgirl Samantha Smith is invited to visit the Soviet Union by its leader Yuri Andropov after he read her letter in which she expressed fears about nuclear war.
* 1983 – Pioneer 10 travels beyond Pluto's orbit.
* 1986 – Mswati III is crowned King of Swaziland, succeeding his father Sobhuza II.
* 1988 – In Israel, John Demjanuk is sentenced to death for war crimes committed in World War II.
* 2003 – The Human Genome Project comes to an end two and a half years earlier than expected.
* 2005 – The final piece of the Obelisk of Axum is returned to Ethiopia after being stolen by the invading Italian army in 1937.
* 2005 – Bulgaria and Romania sign accession treaties to join the European Union.
* 2005 – 107 die in Amagasaki rail crash in Japan.
* 2007 – Boris Yeltsin's funeral – the first to be sanctioned by the Russian Orthodox Church for a head of state since the funeral of Emperor Alexander III in 1894.
* 2011 – At least 300 people killed in deadliest tornado outbreak in the Southern United States since the 1974 Super Outbreak.

April 25 Birthdays

* 1214 – King Louis IX of France (d. 1270)
* 1228 – King Conrad IV of Germany (d. 1254)
* 1284 – King Edward II of England (d. 1327)
* 1287 – Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, de facto ruler of England (d. 1330)
* 1502 – Georg Major, German Protestant theologian (d. 1574)
* 1599 – Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (d. 1658)
* 1608 – Gaston, Duke of Orléans, French politician (d. 1660)
* 1621 – Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery, British soldier, statesman, and dramatist (d. 1679)
* 1666 – Johann Heinrich Buttstett, German Baroque organist and composer (d. 1727)
* 1694 – Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, English architect (d. 1753)
* 1710 – James Ferguson, Scottish astronomer (d. 1776)
* 1723 – Giovanni Marco Rutini, Italian composer (d. 1797)
* 1725 – Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel, Royal Navy admiral (d. 1786)
* 1767 – Nicolas Oudinot, French marshal (d. 1847)
* 1770 – Georg Sverdrup, Norwegian philologist (d. 1850)
* 1775 – Charlotte of Spain, Spanish Infanta and queen of Portugal (d. 1830)
* 1776 – Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh (d. 1857)
* 1843 – Alice of the United Kingdom, Grand Duchess of Hesse (d. 1878)
* 1849 – Felix Klein, German mathematician (d. 1925)
* 1850 – Luise Adolpha Le Beau, German composer (d. 1927)
* 1851 – Leopoldo Alas y Ureña, a.k.a. "Clarín", Spanish novelist (d. 1901)
* 1862 – Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, British politician (d. 1933)
* 1868 – John Bevins Moisant, American aviator (d. 1910)
* 1873 – Walter de la Mare, English poet (d. 1956)
* 1874 – Guglielmo Marconi, Italian inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (d. 1937)
* 1897 – Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood (d. 1965)
* 1898 – Fred Haney, baseball player (d. 1977)
* 1900 – Wolfgang Ernst Pauli, Austrian-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958)
* 1902 – Werner Heyde, German psychiatrist (d. 1964)
* 1903 – Andrey Nikolayevich Kolmogorov, Russian mathematician (d. 1987)
* 1905 – George Nepia, New Zealand rugby player (d. 1986)
* 1906 – William J. Brennan, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1997)
* 1908 – Edward R. Murrow, American journalist (d. 1965)
* 1909 – William Pereira, American architect (d. 1985)
* 1913 – Nikolaos Roussen, Greek naval officer in World War II (d. 1944)
* 1913 – Earl Bostic, American musician (d. 1965)
* 1914 – Ross Lockridge, Jr., American writer (d. 1948)
* 1917 – Ella Fitzgerald, American singer (d. 1996)
* 1918 – Gerard Henri de Vaucouleurs, French astronomer (d. 1995)
* 1918 – Astrid Varnay, Swedish-born soprano (d. 2006)
* 1921 – Karel Appel, Dutch painter (d. 2006)
* 1923 – Melissa Hayden, American ballerina (d. 2006)
* 1923 – Albert King, American musician (d. 1992)
* 1924 – Franco Mannino, Italian composer (d. 2005)
* 1925 – Sammy Drechsel, German journalist, film director, and cabaret performer (d. 1986)
* 1925 – Kay E. Kuter, American actor (d. 2003)
* 1926 – Gertrude Fröhlich-Sandner, Austrian politician (d. 2008)
* 1927 – Albert Uderzo, French cartoonist
* 1927 – Corín Tellado, Spanish romance novelist (d. 2009)
* 1929 – Yvette Williams, first woman New Zealander to go to Olympics
* 1930 – Paul Mazursky, American film director and writer
* 1931 – Felix Berezin, Russian mathematician (d. 1980)
* 1932 – Meadowlark Lemon, American basketball player
* 1932 – William Roache, British television actor (Coronation Street)
* 1933 – Jerry Leiber, American composer
* 1933 – Joyce Ricketts, American baseball player [AAGPBL] (d. 1992)
* 1934 – Peter McParland, Northern Irish footballer
* 1935 – April Ashley, English model
* 1938 – Ton Schulten, Dutch artist
* 1939 – Ted Kooser, American poet and US Poet Laureate
* 1940 – Jochen Borchert, German politician
* 1940 – Al Pacino, American actor
* 1941 – Bertrand Tavernier, French director, screenwriter and actor
* 1941 – Princess Muna al-Hussein, of Jordan
* 1942 – Jon Kyl, American politician, junior senator of Arizona
* 1942 – Katsuji Adachi, Japanese professional wrestler
* 1944 – Len Goodman, English dancer
* 1945 – Stu Cook, American rock bassist (Creedence Clearwater Revival)
* 1945 – Richard C. Hoagland, American conspiracy theorist
* 1945 – Björn Ulvaeus, Swedish singer and songwriter (ABBA)
* 1946 – Talia Shire, American actress
* 1946 – Vladimir Zhirinovsky, Russian politician
* 1947 – Johan Cruijff, Dutch footballer
* 1947 – Jeffrey DeMunn, American actor
* 1948 – Yu Shyi-kun, former Premier of Taiwan
* 1949 – James Fenton, English poet
* 1949 – Vicente Pernía, Argentine footballer
* 1949 – Dominique Strauss-Kahn, French economist, lawyer, and politician
* 1950 – Steve Ferrone, English drummer
* 1950 – Peter Jurasik, American actor
* 1951 – Ian McCartney, British Member of Parliament
* 1952 – Ketil Bjørnstad, Norwegian pianist
* 1952 – Vladislav Tretiak, Soviet ice hockey player
* 1953 – Ron Clements, American animation director
* 1955 – Américo Gallego, Argentine footballer
* 1955 – Parviz Parastui, Iranian actor
* 1955 – Christopher Tyng, American composer
* 1956 – Jaroslava Schallerová, Czech actress
* 1958 – Fish, Scottish singer and lyricist (ex-Marillion)
* 1959 – Dominique Blanc, French actress
* 1959 – Tony Phillips, American baseball player
* 1960 – Bruce Redman, Australian film producer
* 1961 – Dinesh D'Souza, American author
* 1963 – David Moyes, Scottish footballer
* 1963 – Bernd Müller, German footballer
* 1964 – Hank Azaria, American actor and voice actor
* 1964 – Andy Bell, English singer and songwriter (Erasure)
* 1965 – Eric Avery, American musician (Jane's Addiction, Deconstruction, Polar Bear)
* 1965 – Mark Bryant, American basketball player
* 1965 – Simon Fowler, English musician (Ocean Colour Scene)
* 1966 – James Stacy Barbour, American actor and singer
* 1966 – Diego Domínguez, Argentine-born Italian rugby player
* 1966 – Erik Pappas, Greek-American baseball player
* 1969 – Joe Buck, American sports broadcaster
* 1969 – Gina Torres, American actress
* 1969 – Darren Woodson, American football player
* 1969 – Renée Zellweger, American actress
* 1970 – Jason Lee, American actor
* 1970 – Jason Wiles, American actor
* 1971 – Sara Baras, Spanish flamenco dancer
* 1971 – Tomoko Kawakami, Japanese voice actress
* 1973 – Fredrik Larzon, Swedish drummer (Millencolin)
* 1974 – Dean Phoenix American gay pornographic actor
* 1974 – Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou
* 1975 – Emily Bergl, British-American actress
* 1975 – Jacque Jones, American baseball player
* 1976 – Tim Duncan, American basketball player
* 1976 – Gilberto, Brazilian footballer
* 1976 – Rainer Schüttler, German tennis player
* 1976 – Kim Jong Kook, South Korean singer
* 1977 – Constantinos Christoforou, Cypriot singer
* 1977 – Ilias Kotsios, Greek footballer
* 1977 – Marguerite Moreau, American actress
* 1977 – Paavo Siljamäki, Finnish musician
* 1977 – Matthew West, American Christian singer
* 1978 – Letícia Birkheuer, Brazilian model
* 1978 – Matt Walker, British swimmer
* 1980 – Daniel MacPherson, Australian actor
* 1980 – Bruce Martin, New Zealand cricketer
* 1980 – Kazuhito Tadano, Japanese baseball player
* 1980 – Alejandro Valverde, Spanish cyclist
* 1981 – Dwone Hicks, American football player
* 1981 – Felipe Massa, Brazilian Formula One driver
* 1981 – John McFall, British sprinter
* 1981 – Anja Pärson, Swedish skier
* 1982 – Brian Barton, American baseball player
* 1982 – Monty Panesar, English cricketer
* 1982 – Marco Russo, Italian footballer
* 1983 – DeAngelo Williams, American football player
* 1983 – J.P. Howell, American baseball player
* 1983 – Joanne Peh, Singaporean actress
* 1984 – Robert Andino, American baseball player
* 1984 – Melonie Diaz, American actress
* 1984 – Andre' Woodson, American football player
* 1985 – Giedo van der Garde, Dutch racing driver
* 1985 – Jadyn Maria, Puerto Rican singer & songwriter
* 1987 – Johann Smith, American soccer player
* 1987 – Jay Park, b-boy & musician, part of Art of Movement
* 1988 – James Sheppard, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1989 – Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, 11th Panchen Lama
* 1990 – Taylor Walker, Australian Rules football player
* 1996 – Allisyn Ashley Arm, American child actress

Tuesday, April 24, 2012

April 24 Birthdays

* 1533 – William I of Orange (d. 1584)
* 1581 – Vincent de Paul, French saint (d. 1660)
* 1620 – John Graunt, English statistician and founder of the science of demography (d. 1674)
* 1706 – Giovanni Battista Martini, Italian musician (d. 1780)
* 1718 – Nathaniel Hone, Irish-born painter (d. 1784)
* 1743 – Edmund Cartwright, British inventor (d. 1823)
* 1784 – Peter Vivian Daniel, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1860)
* 1815 – Anthony Trollope, English novelist (d. 1882)
* 1845 – Carl Spitteler, Nobel laureate (d. 1924)
* 1856 – Henri Philippe Pétain, French soldier and statesman (d. 1951)
* 1872 – Susanna Bokoyni, Hungarian centenarian and Circus performer
* 1876 – Erich Raeder, German naval commander (d. 1960)
* 1876 – Ioannis Georgiadis, Greek fencer (d. 1960)
* 1878 – Jean Crotti, Swiss artist (d. 1958)
* 1879 – Susanna Bokoyni, Hungarian centenarian and Circus performer d. 1984
* 1882 – Sir Hugh Dowding, commander of RAF Fighter Command during the Battle of Britain (d. 1970)
* 1887 – Denys Finch Hatton, English big-game hunter (d. 1931)
* 1889 – Stafford Cripps, British politician (d. 1952)
* 1889 – Lyubov Popova, Russian painter (d. 1924)
* 1897 – Benjamin Lee Whorf, American linguist (d. 1941)
* 1897 – Manuel Ávila Camacho, President of Mexico (d. 1955)
* 1899 – Oscar Zariski, Russian-born mathematician (d. 1986)
* 1900 – Elizabeth Goudge, English writer (d. 1984)
* 1903 – José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the Falange (d. 1936)
* 1904 – Willem de Kooning, Dutch painter (d. 1997)
* 1905 – Robert Penn Warren, American poet (d. 1989)
* 1906 – William Joyce, Irish fascist (d. 1946)
* 1906 – Mimi Smith, maternal aunt and guardian of John Lennon (d. 1991)
* 1907 – William Sargant, British psychiatrist (d. 1988)
* 1908 – Marceline Day, American actor (d. 2000)
* 1908 – Józef Gosławski, Polish sculptor and medallic artist (d. 1963)
* 1914 – William Castle, American film director and producer (d. 1977)
* 1914 – Justin Wilson, American Cajun chef and humorist (d. 2001)
* 1916 – Lou Thesz, American professional wrestler (d. 2002)
* 1919 – Glafcos Clerides, President of Cyprus
* 1922 – J. D. Cannon, American actor (d. 2005)
* 1923 – Doris Burn, American children's books author and illustrator (d. 2011)
* 1924 – Sir Clement Freud, British writer, radio personality, and politician (d. 2009)
* 1924 – Ruth Kobart, American actor and singer (d. 2002)
* 1926 – Thorbjörn Fälldin, Prime Minister of Sweden
* 1929 – Rajkumar, Kannada actor (d. 2006)
* 1930 – Jerome Callet, American musician
* 1930 – Richard Donner, American film director and producer
* 1930 – José Sarney, President of Brazil
* 1933 – Patricia Bosworth, American actress, journalist, writer and biographer
* 1933 – Claire Davenport, British actress (d. 2002)
* 1933 – Alan Eagleson, Canadian ice hockey agent and promoter
* 1933 – Helmuth Lohner, Austrian actor
* 1933 – Freddie Scott, American singer (d. 2007)
* 1934 – Shirley MacLaine, American actor and author
* 1935 – Tucker Smith, American actor, dancer, and singer (d. 1988)
* 1936 – Glen Hobbie, American baseball player
* 1936 – Jill Ireland, British actress (d. 1990)
* 1937 – Joe Henderson, American jazz saxophonist (d. 2001)
* 1940 – Sue Grafton, American author
* 1941 – Richard Holbrooke, American diplomat (d. 2010)
* 1941 – John Williams, Australian guitarist
* 1942 – Richard M. Daley, American politician
* 1942 – Barbra Streisand, American singer and actor
* 1943 – Richard Sterban, American singer
* 1944 – Tony Visconti, American record producer
* 1945 – Doug Clifford, American drummer
* 1945 – Robert Knight, American singer
* 1945 – Doug Riley, Canadian musician (d. 2007)
* 1945 – Dick Rivers, French singer and actor
* 1947 – Claude Dubois, Canadian singer-songwriter
* 1947 – Josep Borrell, Spanish politician
* 1947 – Roger D. Kornberg, American chemist and Nobel Prize laureate
* 1948 – Paul Cellucci, 69th Governor of Massachusetts and former United States Ambassador to Canada
* 1948 – David Ingram, studio session musician, songwriter and arranger (AnExchange, Love Song) (d. 2005)
* 1949 – Véronique Sanson, French singer-songwriter
* 1951 – Enda Kenny, Taoiseach of Ireland
* 1952 – Jean-Paul Gaultier, French fashion designer
* 1953 – Eric Bogosian, American actor and writer
* 1954 – Mumia Abu-Jamal, American Civil Rights activist, journalist of The Black Panthers
* 1954 – Jack Blades, American musician, bassist for Night Ranger, Rubicon (1970s band) and others
* 1954 – Captain Sensible, British guitarist (The Damned)
* 1955 – Marion Caspers-Merk, German politician
* 1955 – Eamon Gilmore, Tánaiste of Ireland
* 1955 – John de Mol, Dutch media businessman
* 1955 – Michael O'Keefe, American actor
* 1957 – David J, British musician
* 1957 – Boris Williams, British musician (The Cure)
* 1958 – Valery Lantratov, Russian ballet dancer
* 1958 – Brian Paddick, British former deputy assistant commissioner and most senior openly gay police officer
* 1959 – Glenn Morshower, American actor
* 1959 – Malcolm Oastler, Australian engineer
* 1959 – Dave Ridgway, Canadian football player
* 1959 – Paula Yates, British television presenter (d. 2000)
* 1959 – Eren Keskin, Turkish lawyer and activist
* 1962 – Clemens Binninger, German politician
* 1962 – Stuart Pearce, English footballer and manager
* 1962 – Steve Roach, Australian rugby league footballer
* 1963 – Paula Frazer, American singer-songwriter
* 1963 – Billy Gould, American musician (Faith No More)
* 1963 – Mano Solo, French singer
* 1963 – Tõnu Trubetsky, Estonian musician
* 1964 – Witold Smorawiński, Polish musician
* 1964 – Cedric the Entertainer, American comedian and actor
* 1964 – Djimon Hounsou, Beninese actor
* 1965 – Son Chang Min, South Korean actor
* 1966 – Pierre Brassard, Canadian humorist and actor
* 1966 – Alessandro Costacurta, Italian footballer
* 1967 – Omar Vizquel, Venezuelan baseball player
* 1968 – Aidan Gillen, Irish actor
* 1968 – Stacy Haiduk, American actress
* 1968 – Todd Jones, American baseball player
* 1968 – Yuji Nagata, Japanese professional wrestler
* 1968 – Hashim Thaci, Kosovan politician
* 1968 – Mark Vanderloo, Dutch model
* 1969 – Elias Atmatsidis, Greek footballer
* 1969 – Melinda Clarke, American actress
* 1969 – Viveca Paulin, Swedish actress
* 1970 – Damien Fleming, Australian cricketer
* 1971 – Alejandro Fernández, Mexican singer
* 1971 – Mauro Pawlowski, Belgian guitarist and singer
* 1972 – Rab Douglas, Scottish footballer
* 1972 – Nicolas Gill, Canadian judoka
* 1972 – Chipper Jones, American baseball player
* 1972 – Jure Košir, Slovenian skier
* 1973 – Eric Snow, American basketball player
* 1973 – Sachin Tendulkar, Indian cricketer
* 1973 – Gabby Logan, British television presenter
* 1973 – Damon Lindelof, American television writer
* 1973 – Lee Westwood, British golfer
* 1974 – Eric Kripke, American television writer, director and producer
* 1974 – Derek Luke, American actor
* 1974 – Dave Vitty, British radio personality
* 1974 – Stephen Wiltshire, British artist, autistic savant
* 1975 – Sam Doumit, American actress
* 1975 – Thad Luckinbill, American actor
* 1976 – Steve Finnan, Irish footballer
* 1977 – Siarhey Balakhonau, Belarusian writer
* 1977 – Carlos Beltrán, Puerto Rican baseball player
* 1978 – Eric Balfour, American actor
* 1978 – Kim Hyun-ju, Korean actress
* 1978 – Stella Damasus Aboderin, Nigerian actress
* 1979 – Laurentia Tan, Singaporean Paralympic equestrienne
* 1980 – Fernando Arce, Mexican footballer
* 1980 – Karen Asrian, Armenian chess Grandmaster (d. 2008)
* 1980 – Danny Gokey, American singer
* 1980 – Austin Nichols, American actor
* 1981 – Taylor Dent, American tennis player
* 1981 – Dusty Anderson, American pro wrestler
* 1981 – Yuko Nakanishi, Japanese swimmer
* 1982 – Kelly Clarkson, American singer
* 1982 – Laura Hamilton, Dancing On Ice 2011 Runner-Up
* 1983 – Princess Iman bint Al Hussein of Jordan
* 1984 – Tyson Ritter, American musician
* 1986 – Aaron Cunningham, American baseball player
* 1987 – Kristopher Letang, Canadian hockey player
* 1987 – Jan Vertonghen, Belgian footballer
* 1989 – David Boudia, American diver
* 1992 – Doc Shaw, American child actor
* 1994 – Austin Rogers, American actor
* 1998 – Ryan Newman, American actress

April 24 in History

* 1479 BC – Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty).
* 1547 – Battle of Mühlberg. Duke of Alba, commanding Spanish-Imperial forces of Charles I of Spain, defeats the troops of Schmalkaldic League.
* 1558 – Mary, Queen of Scots, marries the Dauphin of France, François, at Notre Dame de Paris.
* 1704 – The first regular newspaper in the United States, the News-Letter, is published in Boston, Massachusetts.
* 1800 – The United States Library of Congress is established when President John Adams signs legislation to appropriate $5,000 USD to purchase "such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress".
* 1862 – American Civil War: A flotilla commanded by Union Admiral David Farragut passes two Confederate forts on the Mississippi River on its way to capture New Orleans, Louisiana.
* 1877 – Russo-Turkish War: Russian Empire declares war on Ottoman Empire.
* 1885 – American sharpshooter Annie Oakley was hired by Nate Salsbury to be a part of Buffalo Bill's Wild West.
* 1898 – The Spanish-American War: The United States declares war on Spain.
* 1904 – The Lithuanian press ban is lifted after almost 40 years.
* 1907 – Hersheypark, founded by Milton S. Hershey for the exclusive use of his employees, is opened.
* 1907 – Al Ahly was founded.
* 1913 – The Woolworth Building skyscraper in New York City is opened.
* 1915 – The arrest of 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Istanbul marks the beginning of the Armenian Genocide.
* 1916 – Easter Rising: The Irish Republican Brotherhood led by nationalists Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, and Joseph Plunkett starts a rebellion in Ireland.
* 1916 – Ernest Shackleton and five men of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition launch a lifeboat from uninhabited Elephant Island in the Southern Ocean to organise a rescue for the ice-trapped ship Endurance.
* 1918 – First tank-to-tank combat, at Villers-Bretonneux, France, when three British Mark IVs met three German A7Vs.
* 1922 – The first segment of the Imperial Wireless Chain providing wireless telegraphy between Leafield in Oxfordshire, England, and Cairo, Egypt, comes into operation.
* 1926 – The Treaty of Berlin is signed. Germany and the Soviet Union each pledge neutrality in the event of an attack on the other by a third party for the next five years.
* 1932 – Benny Rothman leads the mass trespass of Kinder Scout, leading to substantial legal reforms in the United Kingdom.
* 1953 – Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
* 1955 – The Bandung Conference ends: 29 non-aligned nations of Asia and Africa finish a meeting that condemns colonialism, racism, and the Cold War.
* 1957 – Suez Crisis: The Suez Canal is reopened following the introduction of UNEF peacekeepers to the region.
* 1963 – Marriage of HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent to the Hon Angus Ogilvy at Westminster Abbey in London.
* 1965 – Civil war breaks out in the Dominican Republic when Colonel Francisco Caamaño, overthrows the triumvirate that had been in power since the coup d'état against Juan Bosch.
* 1967 – Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov dies in Soyuz 1 when its parachute fails to open. He is the first human to die during a space mission.
* 1967 – Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland says in a news conference that the enemy had "gained support in the United States that gives him hope that he can win politically that which he cannot win militarily."
* 1968 – Mauritius becomes a member state of the United Nations.
* 1970 – The first Chinese satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, is launched.
* 1970 – The Gambia becomes a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, with Dawda Jawara as the first President.
* 1971 – Soyuz 10 docks with Salyut 1.
* 1980 – Eight U.S. servicemen die in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis.
* 1990 – STS-31: The Hubble Space Telescope is launched from the Space Shuttle Discovery.
* 1990 – Gruinard Island, Scotland, is officially declared free of the anthrax disease after 48 years of quarantine.
* 1993 – An IRA bomb devastates the Bishopsgate area of London.
* 1996 – In the United States, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 is introduced.
* 2004 – The United States lifts economic sanctions imposed on Libya 18 years previously, as a reward for its cooperation in eliminating weapons of mass destruction.
* 2005 – Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger is inaugurated as the 265th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church taking the name Pope Benedict XVI.
* 2005 – Snuppy, the world's first cloned dog, is born in South Korea.
* 2006 – King Gyanendra of Nepal gives into the demands of protesters and restores the parliament that he dissolved in 2002.
* 2007 – Iceland announces that Norway will shoulder the defense of Iceland during peacetime.

Monday, April 23, 2012

April 23 Birthdays

* 1141 – King Malcolm IV of Scotland (d. 1165)
* 1170 – Isabelle of Hainaut, queen of France (d. 1190)
* 1185 – King Afonso II of Portugal (d. 1223)
* 1464 – Joan of France, Duchess of Berry, queen of France (d. 1505)
* 1484 – Julius Caesar Scaliger, Italian philosopher (d. 1558)
* 1500 – Alexander Ales, Scottish theologian (d. 1565)
* 1516 – Georg Fabricius, German poet, historian, and archaeologist (d. 1571)
* 1564 – William Shakespeare, English writer and actor (d. 1616) (traditional approximate birth date in Julian calendar based on April 26 baptism)
* 1598 – Maarten Tromp, Dutch admiral (d. 1653)
* 1621 – William Penn, English admiral (d. 1670)
* 1628 – Johann van Waveren Hudde, Dutch mathematician (d. 1704)
* 1676 – King Frederick I of Sweden (d. 1751)
* 1715 – Johann Friedrich Doles, German composer and pupil of J.S. Bach (d. 1797)
* 1720 – Vilna Gaon, Lithuanian rabbi (d. 1797)
* 1725 – Saint Gerard Majella, Catholic saint (d. 1755)
* 1746 – Félix Vicq-d'Azyr, French physician and anatomist (d. 1794)
* 1775 – J. M. W. Turner, English painter (d. 1851)
* 1791 – James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States (d. 1868)
* 1792 – John Thomas Romney Robinson, Irish astronomer and physicist (d. 1882)
* 1794 – Wei Yuan, Chinese scholar (d. 1856)
* 1805 – Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz, German philosopher (d. 1879)
* 1813 – Stephen A. Douglas, U.S. Senator from Illinois and Presidential candidate (d. 1861)
* 1813 – Frédéric Ozanam, French scholar (Society of Saint Vincent de Paul) (d. 1853)
* 1823 – Abd-ul-Mejid I, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1861)
* 1834 – Artemus Ward, American comic writer (d. 1867)
* 1853 – Winthrop M. Crane, 40th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1920)
* 1857 – Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (d. 1919)
* 1858 – Max Planck, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1947)
* 1858 – Ethel Mary Smyth, English composer (d. 1944)
* 1861 – Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, British general (d. 1936)
* 1861 – John Peltz, American baseball player (d. 1906)
* 1865 – Ali-Agha Shikhlinski, Russian-Azerbaijani general (d. 1943)
* 1867 – Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger, Danish scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1928)
* 1872 – Violet Gordon-Woodhouse, British musician (d. 1951)
* 1876 – Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, German historian (d. 1925)
* 1880 – Michel Fokine, Russian choreographer and dancer (d. 1942)
* 1882 – Albert Coates, British composer (d. 1953)
* 1888 – Georges Vanier, French-Canadian soldier and diplomat (d. 1967)
* 1889 – Karel Doorman, Dutch admiral (d. 1942)
* 1891 – Sergei Prokofiev, Russian composer (d. 1953)
* 1893 – Frank Borzage, American film director (d. 1952)
* 1894 – Cow Cow Davenport, American pianist (d. 1955)
* 1895 – Ngaio Marsh, New Zealand writer (d. 1982)
* 1895 – Johnny Hyde, Russian-born American talent agent (d. 1950)
* 1897 – Lucius D. Clay, American general (d. 1978)
* 1897 – Lester B. Pearson, fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1972)
* 1899 – Bertil Ohlin, Swedish economist, Bank of Sweden Prize winner (d. 1979)
* 1899 – Minoru Shirota, inventor of Yakult (d. 1982)
* 1900 – Joseph Green, Polish-born actor and director (d. 1996)
* 1900 – Jim Bottomley, American baseball player (d. 1959)
* 1901 – E.B. Ford, British ecological geneticist (d. 1988)
* 1902 – Halldór Laxness, Icelandic writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
* 1903 – Guy Simonds, youngest general officer in the Canadian army (d. 1974)
* 1904 – Duncan Renaldo, Spanish-American actor (d. 1985)
* 1907 – Fritz Wotruba, Austrian sculptor (d. 1975)
* 1907 – Lee Miller, American photographer & model (d. 1977)
* 1908 – Myron Waldman, American animator (d. 2006)
* 1910 – Simone Simon, French actress (d. 2005)
* 1911 – Ronald Neame, British film producer (d. 2010)
* 1917 – Dorian Leigh, American supermodel (d. 2008)
* 1918 – Maurice Druon, French author (d. 2009)
* 1919 – Oleg Penkovsky, Soviet double-agent (d. 1963)
* 1921 – Janet Blair, American actress (d. 2007)
* 1921 – Warren Spahn, American baseball player (d. 2003)
* 1922 – Marjorie Cameron, American writer, painter, actress and occultist (d. 1995)
* 1922 – Jack May, British actor (d. 1997)
* 1923 – Dolph Briscoe, Governor of Texas (d. 2010)
* 1923 – Avram Davidson, American writer (d. 1993)
* 1923 – Antonino Rocca, professional wrestler (d. 1977)
* 1924 – Chuck Harmon, American baseball player
* 1924 – Bobby Rosengarden, American jazz drummer (d. 2007)
* 1926 – J. P. Donleavy, Irish American author
* 1928 – Shirley Temple, American actress and politician
* 1930 – Alan Oppenheimer, American actor and voice actor
* 1932 – Jim Fixx, American athlete and writer (d. 1984)
* 1932 – Halston, American fashion designer (d. 1990)
* 1934 – George Canseco, Filipino music composer (d. 2004)
* 1935 – Bunky Green, American musician
* 1936 – Roy Orbison, American singer and musician (d. 1988)
* 1939 – Jorge Fons, Mexican film director
* 1939 – Lee Majors, American actor
* 1939 – Ray Peterson, American singer (d. 2005)
* 1940 – Michael Copps, American Federal Government official
* 1941 – Jacqueline Boyer, French singer
* 1941 – Paavo Lipponen, Prime Minister of Finland 1995-2003
* 1941 – Michael Lynne, American film executive
* 1942 – Sandra Dee, American actress (d. 2005)
* 1943 – Gail Goodrich, American basketball player
* 1943 – Tony Esposito, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1943 – Frans Koppelaar, Dutch painter
* 1943 – Hervé Villechaize, French actor (d. 1993)
* 1947 – Glenn Cornick, British musician (Jethro Tull)
* 1947 – Bernadette Devlin, Northern Irish politician
* 1948 – Pascal Quignard, French author
* 1948 – Serge Thériault, French-Canadian comedian and actor
* 1949 – David Cross, British violinist (King Crimson)
* 1949 – Joyce DeWitt, American actress
* 1952 – Narada Michael Walden, American musician and producer
* 1953 – James Russo, American actor
* 1954 – Michael Moore, American filmmaker
* 1955 – Judy Davis, Australian actress
* 1955 – Tony Miles, English chess player (d. 2001)
* 1955 – Fumi Hirano, Japanese voice actress and essayist
* 1957 – Neville Brody, English graphic designer, typographer and art director
* 1957 – Jan Hooks, American actress
* 1957 – Kenji Kawai, Japanese composer
* 1958 – Hilmar Örn Hilmarsson, Icelandic music composer
* 1958 – Gene Scheer, American opera librettist and songwriter
* 1958 – Ryan Walter, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1960 – Valerie Bertinelli, American actress
* 1960 – Steve Clark, English guitarist (Def Leppard) (d. 1991)
* 1960 – Claude Julien, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
* 1961 – Terry Gordy, American professional wrestler (d. 2001)
* 1961 – George Lopez, American actor and comedian
* 1962 – John Hannah, Scottish actor
* 1963 – Paul Belmondo, French actor and racing driver
* 1963 – Magnús Ver Magnússon, Icelandic powerlifter
* 1967 – Rheal Cormier, Canadian baseball player
* 1967 – Kim Hee-ae, South Korean actress
* 1967 – Melina Kanakaredes, American actress
* 1968 – Princess Aisha bint Al Hussein of Jordan
* 1968 – Princess Zein bint Al Hussein of Jordan
* 1968 – Timothy McVeigh, American terrorist (d. 2001)
* 1969 – Yelena Shushunova, Russian gymnast
* 1969 – Byron Thames, American actor
* 1969 – Richard Wolstencroft, Australian filmmaker
* 1969 – Martin López-Zubero, Spanish swimmer
* 1969 – Arthur Phillips, American author and Jeopardy! champion
* 1970 – Scott Bairstow, Canadian actor
* 1970 – Andrew Gee, Australian rugby league footballer
* 1970 – Dennis Bayne Culp, American singer/songwriter
* 1970 – Sadao Abe, Japanese actor
* 1971 – Charmaine Sinclair, English model
* 1971 – Uli Herzner, German American designer
* 1972 – Pierre Labrie, Canadian poet
* 1972 – Patricia Manterola, Mexican singer
* 1972 – Sonya Smith, American actress
* 1973 – Patrick Poulin, French-Canadian ice hockey player
* 1974 – Carlos Dengler, American musician (Interpol)
* 1974 – Michael Kerr, New Zealand-born German rugby player
* 1974 – Barry Watson, American actor
* 1975 – Jón Þór Birgisson, Icelandic musician and singer (Sigur Rós)
* 1975 – Bobby Shaw, American football player
* 1977 – John Cena, American professional wrestler and actor
* 1977 – Andruw Jones, Curaçaoan baseball player
* 1977 – Willie Mitchell, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1977 – Kal Penn, American actor
* 1977 – Lee Young-Pyo, Korean footballer
* 1977 – John Oliver, British comedian
* 1979 – Barry Fratelli, Scottish bassist (The Fratellis)
* 1979 – Yana Gupta, Indian actress & model
* 1979 – Joanna Krupa, Polish/American model and actress
* 1979 – Jaime King, American actress
* 1979 – Lauri Ylönen, Finnish singer (The Rasmus)
* 1981 – Sean Henn, American baseball player
* 1981 – Chris Sharma, American rock climber/boulderer
* 1981 – Seka Aleksic, Serbian turbofolk singer
* 1983 – Daniela Hantuchová, Slovakian tennis player
* 1983 – Taio Cruz, British singer-songwriter
* 1983 – Aaron Hill, American actor
* 1984 – Alexandra Kosteniuk, Russian chess player
* 1985 – Angel Locsin, Filipina actress
* 1986 – Sven Kramer, Dutch speedskater
* 1986 – Jessica Stam, Canadian model
* 1987 – Emily Fox, American cup stacker and basketball player
* 1987 – Boaz Mauda, Israeli singer
* 1987 – John Boye, Ghanaian football player
* 1988 – Victor Anichebe, Nigerian footballer
* 1988 – Molly Burnett, American actress
* 1988 – Prince Buaben, Ghanaian football player
* 1989 – Nicole Vaidišová, Czech tennis player
* 1990 – Dev Patel, British actor
* 1990 – Pikky Ya France, Namibian cricketer
* 1990 – Matthew Underwood, American actor
* 1993 – Rina Chikano, Japanese singer (AKB48)

April 23 in History

* 215 BC – A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene.
* 1014 – Battle of Clontarf: Brian Boru defeats Viking invaders, but is killed in battle.
* 1016 – Edmund Ironside succeeds his father Æthelred the Unready as king of England,
* 1343 – Estonia: St. George's Night Uprising.
* 1348 – The founding of the Order of the Garter by King Edward III is announced on St George's Day.
* 1521 – Battle of Villalar: King Charles I of Spain defeats the Comuneros.
* 1635 – The first public school in the United States, Boston Latin School, is founded in Boston, Massachusetts.
* 1660 – Treaty of Oliwa is established between Sweden and Poland.
* 1661 – King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland is crowned in Westminster Abbey.
* 1815 – The Second Serbian Uprising – a second phase of the national revolution of the Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, erupts shortly after the annexation of the country to the Ottoman Empire.
* 1910 – Theodore Roosevelt made his The Man in the Arena speech.
* 1918 – World War I: The British Royal Navy makes a raid in an attempt to neutralise the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge.
* 1920 – The national council in Turkey denounces the government of Sultan Mehmed VI and announces a temporary constitution.
* 1920 – The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) is founded in Ankara.
* 1927 – Turkey becomes the first country to celebrate Children's Day as a national holiday.
* 1932 – The 153-year old De Adriaan Windmill in Haarlem, Netherlands burns down. It is rebuilt and reopens exactly 70 years later.
* 1935 – The Polish Constitution of 1935 is adopted.
* 1940 – The Rhythm Night Club fire at a dance hall in Natchez, Mississippi, kills 198 people.
* 1941 – World War II: The Greek government and King George II evacuate Athens before the invading Wehrmacht.
* 1942 – World War II: Baedeker Blitz – German bombers hit Exeter, Bath and York in retaliation for the British raid on Lübeck.
* 1949 – Chinese Civil War: Establishment of the People's Liberation Army Navy.
* 1951 – American journalist William N. Oatis is arrested for espionage by the Communist government of Czechoslovakia.
* 1955 – The Canadian Labour Congress is formed by the merger of the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada and the Canadian Congress of Labour.
* 1961 – Algiers putsch by French generals.
* 1967 – Soviet space program: Soyuz 1 (Russian: Союз 1, Union 1) is a manned spaceflight, Launched into orbit carrying cosmonaut Colonel Vladimir Komarov.
* 1968 – Vietnam War: Student protesters at Columbia University in New York City take over administration buildings and shut down the university.
* 1985 – Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.
* 1990 – Namibia becomes the 160th member of the United Nations and the 50th member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
* 1993 – Eritreans vote overwhelmingly for independence from Ethiopia in a United Nations-monitored referendum.
* 1997 – Omaria massacre in Algeria: 42 villagers are killed.

Sunday, April 22, 2012

April 22 Birthdays

* 1451 – Isabella I of Castile (d. 1504)
* 1592 – Wilhelm Schickard, German mathematician who invented a calculating machine (d. 1635)
* 1610 – Pope Alexander VIII (d. 1691)
* 1658 – Giuseppe Torelli, Italian composer (d. 1709)
* 1690 – John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, English statesman (d. 1763)
* 1692 – James Stirling, Scottish mathematician (d. 1770)
* 1707 – Henry Fielding, English author (d. 1754)
* 1711 – Paul II Anton Esterházy, Austrian soldier and music patron (d. 1762)
* 1724 – Immanuel Kant, German philosopher (d. 1804)
* 1744 – James Sullivan, 7th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1808)
* 1757 – Alessandro Rolla, Italian violin master and composer (d. 1841)
* 1766 – Madame de Staël, French author (d. 1817)
* 1812 – Solomon Caesar Malan, British orientalist (d. 1894)
* 1816 – Charles Denis Bourbaki, French general (d. 1897)
* 1832 – Julius Sterling Morton, Arbor Day founder (d. 1902)
* 1840 – Odilon Redon, French painter (d. 1916)
* 1844 – Lewis Thornton Powell, would-be assassin of United States Secretary of State William H. Seward (d. 1865)
* 1852 – Guillaume IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (d. 1912)
* 1854 – Henri La Fontaine, Belgian lawyer, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1943)
* 1860 – Ada Rehan, American stage actress (d. 1916)
* 1868 – Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria (d. 1924)
* 1870 – Vladimir Lenin, Russian revolutionary (d. 1924)
* 1872 – Princess Margaret of Prussia, queen of Finland (d. 1954)
* 1873 – Ellen Glasgow, American author (d. 1945)
* 1876 – Robert Bárány, Austrian physician, Nobel laureate (d. 1936)
* 1876 – Georg Lurich, Estonian wrestler (d. 1920)
* 1881 – Alexander Kerensky, Russian politician (d. 1970)
* 1884 – Otto Rank, Austrian psychologist (d. 1939)
* 1886 – Izidor Cankar, Slovenian art historian, essayist and diplomat (d. 1958)
* 1889 – Richard Glücks, German SS officer and concentration camp administrator (d. 1945)
* 1891 – Laura Gilpin, American photographer (d. 1979)
* 1891 – Vittorio Jano, Italian engineer (d. 1965)
* 1891 – Harold Jeffreys, English astronomer (d. 1989)
* 1891 – Nicola Sacco, American anarchist (d. 1927)
* 1892 – Vernon Johns, American civil rights activist (d. 1965)
* 1899 – Vladimir Nabokov, novelist, professor, lepidopterist [O.S. 10 April] (d. 1977)
* 1904 – J. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist (d. 1967)
* 1905 – Robert Choquette, French Canadian novelist, poet and diplomat (d. 1991)
* 1906 – Eddie Albert, American actor (d. 2005)
* 1906 – Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten (d. 1947)
* 1907 – Ivan Efremov, Russian paleontologist and author (d. 1972)
* 1909 – Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italian neurologist, Nobel laureate
* 1909 – Indro Montanelli, Italian journalist and historian (d. 2001)
* 1910 – Norman Steenrod, American mathematician (d. 1971)
* 1912 – Kathleen Ferrier, British singer (d. 1953)
* 1914 – Jan de Hartog, Dutch writer (d. 2002)
* 1914 – Michael Wittmann, German soldier (d. 1944)
* 1916 – Yehudi Menuhin, American-born violinist (d. 1999)
* 1918 – William Jay Smith, American poet
* 1918 – Mickey Vernon, American baseball player (d. 2008)
* 1919 – Donald J. Cram, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 2001)
* 1919 – Carl Lindner, Jr., American businessman and philanthropist
* 1922 – Richard Diebenkorn, American artist (d. 1993)
* 1922 – Charles Mingus, American musician (d. 1979)
* 1922 – Wolf V. Vishniac, American microbiologist (d. 1973)
* 1923 – Avis Bunnage, English actress (d. 1990)
* 1923 – Bettie Page, American model (d. 2008)
* 1923 – Aaron Spelling, American television producer (d. 2006)
* 1925 – George Cole, English actor
* 1926 – Charlotte Rae, American actress
* 1926 – James Stirling, British architect (d. 1992)
* 1927 – Laurel Aitken, Jamaican singer (d. 2005)
* 1927 – Giannis Mihalopoulos, Greek actor
* 1929 – Michael Atiyah, British-Lebanese mathematician
* 1930 – Enno Penno, Estonian politician
* 1935 – Paul Chambers, American jazz bassist (d. 1969)
* 1936 – Glen Campbell, American musician
* 1936 – Pierre Hétu, French Canadian conductor and pianist (d. 1998)
* 1937 – Jack Nicholson, American actor
* 1937 – Jack Nitzsche, American composer (d. 2000)
* 1938 – Adam Raphael, English journalist and author
* 1938 – Gani Fawehinmi, Nigerian lawyer and political activist (d. 2009)
* 1939 – Mel Carter, American singer
* 1939 – Jason Miller, American playwright (d. 2001)
* 1939 – Theodor Waigel, German politician and finance minister
* 1943 – Janet Evanovich, American writer
* 1943 – Louise Glück, American poet and 12th US Poet Laureate
* 1944 – Steve Fossett, American adventurer (d. 2007)
* 1945 – Demetrio Stratos, Italian musician (d. 1979)
* 1946 – Steven L. Bennett, USAF Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient (d. 1972)
* 1946 – Paul Davies, English physicist, writer and broadcaster
* 1946 – Nicole Garcia, French actress and director
* 1946 – Louise Harel, Canadian politician
* 1946 – John Waters, American filmmaker
* 1948 – Larry Groce, American singer and songwriter
* 1950 – Peter Frampton, English musician
* 1950 – Zygi Wilf, owner of the Minnesota Vikings
* 1951 – Paul Carrack, English musician
* 1951 – Ana María Shua, Argentine poet
* 1952 – François Berléand, French actor
* 1952 – Marilyn Chambers, American pornographic actress (d. 2009)
* 1953 – Tom Griswold, American radio personality
* 1953 – Juhani Komulainen, Finnish composer
* 1955 – Johnnie To, Hong Kong film director and producer
* 1957 – Donald Tusk, Polish Prime Minister
* 1958 – Ken Olandt, American actor
* 1959 – Terry Francona, American baseball manager
* 1959 – Catherine Mary Stewart, Canadian actress
* 1959 – Ryan Stiles, American actor
* 1960 – Mart Laar, Estonian statesman
* 1960 – Gary Rhodes, English chef
* 1960 – Randall L. Stephenson, American business executive
* 1960 – Tatiana Thumbtzen, American actress, model and dancer
* 1961 – Dewey Nicks, American photographer and film director
* 1962 – Jeff Minter, English video game programmer
* 1963 – Sean Lock, English comedian
* 1964 – Estelle Asmodelle, actress, model & writer
* 1965 – Lauri Hendler, actress
* 1965 – Peter Zezel, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1966 – Dana Barron, American actress
* 1966 – Fletcher Dragge, American guitarist (Pennywise)
* 1966 – Mariana Levy, Mexican actress (d. 2005)
* 1966 – Mickey Morandini, American baseball player and manager
* 1966 – Jeffrey Dean Morgan, American actor
* 1967 – Sheryl Lee, American actress
* 1967 – Sherri Shepherd, American comedian and actress
* 1967 – Harvey Williams, American football player
* 1968 – Bimbo Coles, American basketball player
* 1968 – Zarley Zalapski, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1969 – Dion Dublin, English footballer
* 1970 – Andrea Giani, Italian volleyball player
* 1970 – Regine Velasquez, Filipino singer and actress
* 1971 – Daisuke Enomoto, Japanese space tourist
* 1971 – Eric Mabius, American actor
* 1971 – Ingo Rademacher, German-Australian actor
* 1972 – Sabine Appelmans, Belgian tennis player
* 1972 – Owen Finegan, Australian rugby union footballer
* 1972 – Milka Duno, Venezuelan race car driver
* 1973 – Adem Poric, Australian footballer
* 1973 – Brian Marshall, American bassist (Creed)
* 1973 – Ofer Talker, Israeli footballer
* 1973 – Christopher Sabat, American voice actor
* 1974 – Shavo Odadjian, Armenian-American bassist (System of a Down)
* 1975 – Greg Moore, Canadian race car driver (d. 1999)
* 1975 – Carlos Sastre, Spanish cyclist
* 1976 – Dan Cloutier, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1976 – Paul Henderson, Australian footballer
* 1976 – Michał Żewłakow, Polish footballer
* 1977 – Mark van Bommel, Dutch footballer
* 1977 – Aaron Fink, American guitarist (Breaking Benjamin)
* 1977 – Ambra Angiolini, Italian actress
* 1978 – Ezekiel Jackson, Guyanese professional wrestler
* 1978 – Matt Orford, Australian rugby league player
* 1978 – Jason Stollsteimer, American singer (The Von Bondies)
* 1978 – Esteban Tuero, Argentinian race car driver
* 1979 – Zoltán Gera, Hungarian footballer
* 1979 – Daniel Johns, Australian musician (Silverchair)
* 1980 – Clarke Dermody, New Zealand rugby player
* 1980 – Nicolas Douchez, French footballer
* 1980 – Courtney Friel, American sports & entertainment reporter
* 1980 – Carlos Hernández, Venezuelan baseball player
* 1980 – Kora Karvouni, Greek actress
* 1980 – Aaron Michael Metchik, American actor
* 1981 – Ken Dorsey, American football player
* 1982 – Kaká, Brazilian footballer
* 1982 – Joel Monaghan, Australian Rugby League Player
* 1982 – David Purcey, American baseball player
* 1983 – Francis Capra, American actor
* 1983 – Sam Heads, British entomologist and palaeontologist
* 1983 – Jos Hooiveld, Dutch footballer
* 1983 – Matt Jones, American football player
* 1983 – Evangelos Mantzios, Greek footballer
* 1984 – Amelle Berrabah, English singer (Sugababes)
* 1984 – Michelle Ryan, English actress
* 1985 – Matt Ballinger, American singer (Dream Street)
* 1986 – Amber Heard, American actress
* 1986 – Marshawn Lynch, American football player
* 1986 – Dušan Šakota, Serbian-Greek basketball player
* 1987 – David Luiz, Brazilian footballer
* 1987 – Mikel John Obi, Nigerian footballer
* 1988 – Amadou Samb, Senegalese footballer
* 1989 – Jasper Cillessen, Dutch footballer
* 1989 – Dejuan Blair, American basketball player
* 1989 – Thomas James Longley, British actor
* 1990 – Eve Muirhead, Scottish curler

April 22 in History

* 238 – Year of the Six Emperors: The Roman Senate outlaws emperor Maximinus Thrax for his bloodthirsty proscriptions in Rome and nominates two of its members, Pupienus and Balbinus, to the throne.
* 1500 – Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral lands in Brazil.
* 1529 – Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal along a line 297.5 leagues or 17° east of the Moluccas.
* 1809 – The second day of the Battle of Eckmühl: the Austrian army is defeated by the First French Empire army led by Napoleon I of France and driven over the Danube in Regensburg.
* 1836 – Texas Revolution: A day after the Battle of San Jacinto, forces under Texas General Sam Houston capture Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
* 1863 – American Civil War: Grierson's Raid begins – troops under Union Army Colonel Benjamin Grierson attack central Mississippi.
* 1864 – The U.S. Congress passes the Coinage Act of 1864 that mandates that the inscription In God We Trust be placed on all coins minted as United States currency.
* 1876 – The first ever National League is played in Philadelphia.
* 1889 – At high noon, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed with populations of at least 10,000.
* 1898 – Spanish-American War: The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports and the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship.
* 1906 – The 1906 Summer Olympics, not now recognized as part of the official Olympic Games, open in Athens.
* 1912 – Tsinghua University, one of mainland China's leading universities, is founded.
* 1912 – Pravda, the "voice" of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, begins publication in Saint Petersburg.
* 1915 – The use of poison gas in World War I escalates when chlorine gas is released as a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres.
* 1930 – The United Kingdom, Japan and the United States sign the London Naval Treaty regulating submarine warfare and limiting shipbuilding.
* 1944 – The 1st Air Commando Group using Sikorsky R-4 helicopters stage the first use of helicopters in combat with CSAR operations in the China-Burma-India theater.
* 1944 – World War II: Operation Persecution is initiated – Allied forces land in the Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura) area of New Guinea.
* 1945 – World War II: Prisoners at the Jasenovac concentration camp revolt. 520 are killed and 80 escape.
* 1945 – World War II: Führerbunker: After learning that Soviet forces have taken Eberswalde without a fight, Adolf Hitler admits defeat in his underground bunker and states that suicide is his only recourse.
* 1948 – 1948 Arab-Israeli War: Haifa, a major port of Israel, is captured from Arab forces.
* 1954 – Red Scare: Witnesses begin testifying and live television coverage of the Army-McCarthy Hearings begins.
* 1964 – The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair opens for its first season.
* 1969 – British yachtsman Sir Robin Knox-Johnston completes the first solo non-stop circumnavigation of the world.
* 1970 – The first Earth Day is celebrated.
* 1972 – Vietnam War: Increased American bombing in Vietnam prompts anti-war protests in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco.
* 1983 – The German magazine Der Stern claims that the "Hitler Diaries" had been found in wreckage in East Germany; the diaries are subsequently revealed to be forgeries.
* 1992 – In an explosion in Guadalajara, Mexico, 206 people are killed, nearly 500 injured and 15,000 left homeless.
* 1993 – Version 1.0 of the Mosaic web browser is released.
* 1997 – Haouch Khemisti massacre in Algeria – 93 villagers killed.
* 1997 – The Japanese embassy hostage crisis ends in Lima, Peru.
* 1998 – Disney's Animal Kingdom opens at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida, United States.
* 2000 – In a pre-dawn raid, federal agents seize six-year-old Elián González from his relatives' home in Miami, Florida.
* 2000 – The Big Number Change takes place in the United Kingdom.
* 2000 – Second Battle of Elephant Pass: Tamil Tigers capture a strategic Sri Lankan Army base and hold it for 8 years.
* 2003 – Election of the fifth Caliph of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
* 2004 – Two fuel trains collide in Ryongchon, North Korea, killing up to 150 people.
* 2005 – Japan's Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi apologizes for Japan's war record.
* 2006 – 243 people are injured in pro-democracy protest in Nepal after Nepali security forces open fire on protesters against King Gyanendra.
* 2008 – The United States Air Force retires the remaining F-117 Nighthawk aircraft in service.

Saturday, April 21, 2012

April 21 Birthdays

* 1555 – Ludovico Carracci, Italian painter (d. 1619)
* 1651 – Blessed Joseph Vaz, Apostle of Ceylon (d. 1711)
* 1652 – Michel Rolle, French mathematician (d. 1719)
* 1671 – John Law, Scottish economist (d. 1729)
* 1673 – Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick, Holy Roman Empire Empress (d. 1742)
* 1713 – Louis, 4th duc de Noailles, Marshal of France (d. 1793)
* 1729 – Catherine II of Russia, known as 'Catherine the Great' (d. 1796)
* 1730 – Antonín Kammel,Czech composer and violinist (d. 1788)
* 1767 – Elisabeth of Württemberg, Archduchess of Austria (d. 1790)
* 1774 – Jean-Baptiste Biot, French physicist (d. 1862)
* 1775 – Alexander Anderson, American illustrator (d. 1870)
* 1810 – John Putnam Chapin, American politician (d. 1864)
* 1811 – Alson Sherman, American politician (d. 1903)
* 1814 – Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, English philanthropist (d. 1906)
* 1816 – Charlotte Brontë, English author (d. 1855)
* 1837 – Fredrik Bajer, Danish politician, Nobel laureate (d. 1922)
* 1838 – John Muir, Scottish-born American environmentalist (d. 1914)
* 1851 – Charles Barrois, French geologist (d. 1939)
* 1854 – William Stang, Roman Catholic Bishop (d. 1907)
* 1864 – Max Weber, German economist and sociologist (d. 1920)
* 1870 – Edwin S. Porter, American film pioneer (d. 1941)
* 1879 – Raden Ayu Kartini, Indonesian national figure (d. 1904)
* 1882 – Percy Williams Bridgman, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1961)
* 1887 – Joe McCarthy, American baseball manager (d. 1978)
* 1889 – Paul Karrer, Swiss chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1971)
* 1898 – Maurice Wilson, Everest climber, Yorkshire hero (d. 1934)
* 1904 – Odilo Globocnik, Austrian Nazi (d. 1945)
* 1905 – Edmund G. "Pat" Brown, Governor of California (d. 1996)
* 1906 – Stephen Tennant, English socialite (d. 1987)
* 1907 – Wade Mainer, American singer and banjoist
* 1911 – Ivan Combe, American inventor (d. 2000)
* 1911 – Leonard Warren, American opera baritone (d. 1960)
* 1912 – Marcel Camus, French film director (d. 1982)
* 1914 – Norman Panama, American screenwriter (d. 2003)
* 1914 – Angelo Savoldi, Italian-American wrestler
* 1915 – Garrett Hardin, American ecologist (d. 2003)
* 1915 – Anthony Quinn, Mexican-born American actor (d. 2001)
* 1918 – Eddy Christiani, Dutch singer and guitarist
* 1919 – Don Cornell, American singer (d. 2004)
* 1920 – Edmund Adamkiewicz, German footballer (d. 1991)
* 1920 – Ronald Magill, British actor (d. 2007)
* 1923 – John Mortimer, English barrister and writer (d. 2009)
* 1924 – Ira Louvin, Country music singer, songwriter, and musician (d. 1965)
* 1925 – Sir Anthony Mason, former Chief Justice of Australia
* 1926 – Elizabeth II, Queen of the Commonwealth realms
* 1926 – Arthur Rowley, English footballer (d. 2002)
* 1927 – Gerald Flood, British actor (d. 1989)
* 1930 – Silvana Mangano, Italian actress (d. 1989)
* 1932 – Elaine May, American comedian
* 1933 – Easley Blackwood, Jr., American professor of music, a concert pianist, a composer
* 1935 – Charles Grodin, American actor
* 1935 – Thomas Kean, American politician
* 1936 – James Dobson, American evangelist
* 1939 – Helen Prejean, American author and activist
* 1944 – Adrian Hurley, Australian basketball coach
* 1945 – Diana Darvey, British actress, singer and dancer (d. 2000)
* 1945 – Ronnie Tober, Dutch singer
* 1947 – Barbara Park, American author of children's books
* 1947 – Iggy Pop, American musician (The Stooges)
* 1947 – John Weider, British rock musician (Eric Burdon and the Animals, Family)
* 1948 – Gary Condit, American politician
* 1948 – Paul Davis, American singer (d. 2008)
* 1949 – Patti LuPone, American singer and actress
* 1951 – Tony Danza, American actor and comedian
* 1951 – Michael Hartley Freedman, American mathematician
* 1951 – Bob Varsha, American motor sports TV commentator
* 1951 – Steve Vickers, Canadian hockey player
* 1954 – Ebiet G. Ade, Indonesian singer
* 1954 – James Morrison, American actor
* 1956 – Phillip Longman, American demographer
* 1957 – Edward Leslie, American professional wrestler
* 1958 – Andie MacDowell, American actress
* 1958 – Yoshito Usui, Japanese manga artist
* 1958 – Michael Zarnock, American author and columnist
* 1959 – Tim Jacobus, American artist (Goosebumps)
* 1959 – Jerry Only, American musician (The Misfits)
* 1959 – Arno Pijpers, Dutch football coach
* 1959 – Robert Smith, British musician (The Cure)
* 1959 – Michael Timmins, Canadian musician (Cowboy Junkies)
* 1960 – Michel Goulet, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1961 – Ronald Florijn, Dutch rower
* 1961 – Neale Marmon, English footballer
* 1962 – Les Lancaster, American baseball player
* 1963 – Ken Caminiti, American baseball player (d. 2004)
* 1963 – Roy Dupuis, Canadian actor
* 1963 – John Cameron Mitchell, American film director
* 1964 – Alex Baumann, Canadian swimmer
* 1964 – Ludmila Engquist, Russian-born Swedish athlete
* 1965 – Ed Belfour, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1965 – Karen Foster, American model (Playboy)
* 1965 – Gary Grant, American basketball player
* 1965 – Fiona Kelleghan, American academic and critic
* 1966 – Michael Franti, American musician
* 1968 – Peter van Vossen, Dutch footballer and football coach
* 1969 – Robin Meade, American news anchor
* 1969 – Toby Stephens, British actor
* 1970 – Jeff Anderson, American actor
* 1970 – Glen Hansard, Irish songwriter and actor
* 1970 – Rob Riggle, American comedian
* 1970 – Nicole Sullivan, American actress
* 1971 – Alexander Kravchenko, Russian poker player
* 1971 – Eric Mabius, American actor
* 1971 – Michael Turner, American comic book artist (d. 2008)
* 1972 – Gwendal Peizerat, French ice dancer
* 1972 – Severina Vučković, Croatian singer
* 1973 – Jonathan Nsenga, Belgian athlete
* 1975 – Charlie O'Connell, American actor
* 1975 – Tha Trademarc, American hip hop artist
* 1975 – Brian J. White, American actor
* 1976 – Rommel Adducul, Filipino basketball player
* 1976 – Ronald Vink, Dutch wheelchair tennis player
* 1977 – Doseone, American rapper
* 1977 – Jamie Salé, Canadian figure skater
* 1978 – Jacob Burns, Australian footballer
* 1978 – Jukka Nevalainen, Finnish drummer (Nightwish)
* 1978 – Branden Steineckert, American drummer (Rancid, The Used)
* 1979 – James McAvoy, Scottish actor
* 1979 – Tobias Linderoth, Swedish footballer
* 1980 – Jeff Keppinger, American baseball player
* 1980 – Vincent Lecavalier, Canadian hockey player
* 1980 – Tony Romo, American football player
* 1980 – Martin Rosete, Spanish film director and publicist
* 1981 – Mads Junker, Danish footballer
* 1981 – Kim Lammers, Dutch field hockey player
* 1981 – Stephanie Larimore, American model
* 1982 – Carnell Williams, American football player
* 1982 – Lynn Hilary, Irish singer
* 1983 – Paweł Brożek, Polish footballer
* 1983 – Marco Donadel, Italian footballer
* 1983 – Tarvaris Jackson, American football player
* 1984 – Shayna Fox, American voice actress
* 1986 – Audra Cohen, American tennis player
* 1986 – Alexander Edler, Swedish hockey player
* 1986 – Rodney Stuckey, American basketball player
* 1986 – Mirko Valdifiori, Italian footballer
* 1987 – Nadif Chowdhury, Bangladeshi cricketer
* 1987 – Eric Devendorf, American basketball player
* 1987 – Leroy George, Dutch footballer
* 1988 – Robbie Amell, Canadian actor
* 1988 – Pedro Mosquera Parada, Spanish footballer
* 1989 – Carlos Muñoz, Chilean footballer
* 2007 – Princess Isabella of Denmark

April 21 in History

* 753 BC – Romulus and Remus founded Rome (traditional date).
* 43 BC – Battle of Mutina: Mark Antony is again defeated in battle by Aulus Hirtius, who is killed. Antony fails to capture Mutina and Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly after.
* 900 – The Laguna Copperplate Inscription: the Honourable Namwaran and his children, Lady Angkatan and Bukah, are granted pardon from all their debts by the Commander in chief of Tundun, as represented by the Honourable Jayadewa, Lord Minister of Pailah. Luzon, Philippines.
* 1509 – Henry VIII ascends the throne of England on the death of his father, Henry VII.
* 1519 – Hernán Cortés lands in Veracruz, Veracruz
* 1792 – Tiradentes, a revolutionary leading a movement for Brazil's independence, is hanged, drawn and quartered.
* 1809 – Two Austrian army corps are driven from Landshut by a First French Empire army led by Napoleon I of France as two French corps to the north hold off the main Austrian army on the first day of the Battle of Eckmühl.
* 1836 – Texas Revolution: The Battle of San Jacinto – Republic of Texas forces under Sam Houston defeat troops under Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
* 1863 – Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, declares his mission as "He whom God shall make manifest".
* 1894 – Norway formally adopts the Krag-Jørgensen rifle as the main arm of its armed forces, a weapon that would remain in service for almost 50 years.
* 1918 – World War I: German fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen, known as "The Red Baron", is shot down and killed over Vaux-sur-Somme in France.
* 1922 – The first Aggie Muster is held as a remembrance for fellow Texas A&M graduates who had died in the previous year.
* 1934 – The "Surgeon's Photograph", the most famous photo allegedly showing the Loch Ness Monster, is published in the Daily Mail (in 1999, it is revealed to be a hoax).
* 1941 – Emmanouil Tsouderos becomes the 132nd Prime Minister of Greece.
* 1942 – World War II: The most famous (and first international) Aggie Muster is held on the Philippine island of Corregidor, by Brigadier General George F. Moore (with 25 fellow Texas A&M graduates who are under his command), while 1.8 million pounds of shells pounded the island over a 5 hour attack.
* 1945 – World War II: Soviet Union forces south of Berlin at Zossen attack the German High Command headquarters.
* 1952 – Secretary's Day (now Administrative Professionals' Day) is first celebrated.
* 1960 – Brasília, Brazil's capital, is officially inaugurated. At 9:30 am the Three Powers of the Republic are simultaneously transferred from the old capital, Rio de Janeiro.
* 1960 – Founding of the Orthodox Bahá'í Faith in Washington, D.C.
* 1962 – The Seattle World's Fair (Century 21 Exposition) opens. It is the first World's Fair in the United States since World War II.
* 1963 – The Universal House of Justice of the Bahá'í Faith is elected for the first time.
* 1964 – A Transit-5bn satellite fails to reach orbit after launch; as it re-enters the atmosphere, 2.1 pounds (0.95 kg) of radioactive plutonium in its SNAP RTG power source is widely dispersed.
* 1965 – The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair opens for its second and final season.
* 1966 – Rastafari movement: Haile Selassie of Ethiopia visits Jamaica, an event now celebrated as Grounation Day.
* 1967 – Greek military junta of 1967–1974: A few days before the general election in Greece, Colonel George Papadopoulos leads a coup d'état, establishing a military regime that lasts for seven years.
* 1970 – The Hutt River Province Principality secedes from Australia.
* 1975 – Vietnam War: President of South Vietnam Nguyen Van Thieu flees Saigon, as Xuan Loc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, falls.
* 1982 – Baseball: Rollie Fingers of the Milwaukee Brewers becomes the first pitcher to record 300 saves.
* 1987 – The Tamil Tigers are blamed for a car bomb that explodes in the Sri Lankan city of Colombo, killing 106 people.
* 1989 – Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989: In Beijing, around 100,000 students gather in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Chinese reform leader Hu Yaobang.
* 1993 – The Supreme Court in La Paz, Bolivia, sentences former dictator Luis Garcia Meza to 30 years in jail without parole for murder, theft, fraud and violating the constitution.
* 1994 – The first discoveries of extrasolar planets are announced by astronomer Alexander Wolszczan.
* 2004 – Five suicide car bombers target police stations in and around Basra, killing 74 people and wounding 160.

Friday, April 20, 2012

April 20 Birthdays

* 702 – Jafar Sadiq, Shi'a Imam and Muslim scholar (d. 765)
* 1492 – Pietro Aretino, Italian writer of Erotic prose and poems(d.1556)
* 1494 – Johannes Agricola, German Protestant reformer (d. 1566)
* 1586 – Saint Rose of Lima, Peruvian saint (d. 1617)
* 1633 – Emperor Go-Komyo of Japan (d. 1654)
* 1646 – Charles Plumier, French botanist (d. 1704)
* 1650 – William Bedloe, English informer (d. 1680)
* 1668 – Yuri Troubetzkoy, Governor of Belgorod (d. 1739)
* 1718 – David Brainerd, American missionary (d. 1747)
* 1723 – Cornelius Harnett, American Continental Congress delegate (d. 1781)
* 1727 – Comte de Mercy-Argenteau, Belgian-born Austrian diplomat (d. 1794)
* 1745 – Philippe Pinel, French physician (d. 1826)
* 1748 – Georg Michael Telemann, German composer and theologian (d. 1831)
* 1808 – Emperor Napoleon III of France (d. 1873)
* 1816 – Bogoslav Šulek, Croatian philologist, historian and lexicographer (d. 1895)
* 1818 – Heinrich Göbel, German-born inventor (d. 1893)
* 1826 – Dinah Craik, English author (d. 1887)
* 1850 – Daniel Chester French, American sculptor (d. 1931)
* 1851 – Young Tom Morris, Scottish golfer (d. 1875)
* 1870 – Maulvi Abdul Haq, Pakistani scholar (d. 1961)
* 1871 – Sydney Chapman, British economist and civil servant (d. 1951)
* 1875 – Vladimir Vidrić, Croatian poet (d. 1909)
* 1879 – Paul Poiret, French couturier (d. 1944)
* 1882 – Holland Smith, U.S. General (d. 1967)
* 1884 – Daniel Varujan, Armenian poet (d. 1915)
* 1884 – Princess Beatrice of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1966)
* 1889 – Albert Jean Amateau, Turkish-born businessman and activist (d. 1996)
* 1889 – Adolf Hitler, Dictator of Nazi Germany (d. 1945)
* 1890 – Maurice Duplessis, premier of Quebec (d. 1959)
* 1893 – Harold Lloyd, American actor (d. 1971)
* 1893 – Joan Miró, Spanish painter (d. 1983)
* 1893 – Edna Parker, American supercentenarian (d. 2008)
* 1895 – Emile Christian, American musician (d. 1973)
* 1896 – Wilfrid R. "Wop" May, Canadian aviator (d. 1952)
* 1896 – Henry de Montherlant, French writer (d. 1972)
* 1904 – Bruce Cabot, American actor (d. 1972)
* 1904 – George Stibitz, American scientist (d. 1995)
* 1907 – Augoustinos Kantiotes, Greek Orthodox bishop of Florina (d. 2010)
* 1908 – Lionel Hampton, American musician (d. 2002)
* 1913 – Mimis Fotopoulos, Greek actor (d. 1986)
* 1914 – Betty Lou Gerson, American actress (d. 1999)
* 1915 – Joseph Wolpe, South African–born psychotherapist (d. 1997)
* 1918 – Edward L. Beach, Jr., American naval officer, author (d. 2002)
* 1918 – Kai Siegbahn, Swedish physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007)
* 1919 – Richard Hillary, Australian pilot and author (d. 1943)
* 1920 – Ratko Zvrko, Croatian author, journalist and boxer (d. 1998)
* 1920 – Ronald Speirs, WWII Veteran (d. 2007)
* 1920 – John Paul Stevens, American jurist
* 1921 – Janine Sutto, French-Canadian actress
* 1923 – Mother Angelica, American nun and broadcaster
* 1923 – Irene Lieblich, Polish-born painter (d. 2008)
* 1923 – Tito Puente, American musician (d. 2000)
* 1924 – Nina Foch, Dutch-born American actress (d. 2008)
* 1924 – Leslie Phillips, English actor
* 1925 – Ernie Stautner, German-born American football player (d. 2006)
* 1927 – Phil Hill, American race car driver (d. 2008)
* 1927 – Karl Alexander Müller, Swiss physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
* 1928 – Johnny Gavin, Irish footballer (d. 2007)
* 1928 – Gerald S. Hawkins, English astronomer (d. 2003)
* 1929 – Harry Agganis, Greek-American baseball and football player (d. 1955)
* 1931 – John Eccles, 2nd Viscount Eccles, British businessman and peer
* 1936 – Pat Roberts, American politician
* 1937 – Antonios Kounadis, Greek discus thrower
* 1937 – George Takei, American actor
* 1937 – Jiří Dienstbier, Czech journalist and politician (d. 2011)
* 1938 – Johnny Tillotson, American singer and songwriter
* 1938 – Tamási Eszter, Hungarian TV announcer and actress (d. 1991)
* 1939 – Peter S. Beagle, American author
* 1939 – Gro Harlem Brundtland, former Prime Minister of Norway
* 1940 – James Gammon, American actor (d. 2010)
* 1941 – Ryan O'Neal, American actor
* 1942 – Arto Paasilinna, Finnish writer
* 1943 – John Eliot Gardiner, English conductor
* 1943 – Edie Sedgwick, American actress (d. 1971)
* 1945 – Michael Brandon, American actor
* 1945 – Judith O'Dea, American actress
* 1945 – Steve Spurrier, American football player and coach
* 1945 – Thein Sein, Burmese president
* 1946 – Julien Poulin, French Canadian actor
* 1946 – Gordon Smiley, American racecar driver (d. 1982)
* 1947 – David Leland, British actor, director and screenwriter
* 1947 – Ken Scott, English record producer and recording engineer
* 1947 – Björn Skifs, Swedish singer (Blue Swede)
* 1947 – Andrew Tobias, American journalist and author
* 1948 – Craig Frost, American musician (Grand Funk & Bob Seger)
* 1948 – Gregory Itzin, American actor
* 1948 – Rémy Trudel, French Canadian politician
* 1949 – Veronica Cartwright, American actress
* 1949 – Toller Cranston, Canadian figure skater and artist
* 1949 – Massimo D'Alema, 76th Prime Minister of Italy
* 1949 – Jessica Lange, American actress
* 1950 – Steve Erickson, American novelist
* 1950 – Alexander Lebed, Russian general and politician (d. 2002)
* 1950 – Chandra Babu Naidu, Indian politician
* 1951 – Luther Vandross, American singer (d. 2005)
* 1952 – Louka Katseli, Greek Minister for Labour and Social Security
* 1952 – Božidar Maljković, Serbian basketball coach
* 1953 – Robert Crais, American author
* 1953 – Sebastian Faulks, British novelist
* 1954 – Gilles Lupien, French-Canadian ice hockey player
* 1955 – Don Pettit, American astronaut and inventor
* 1956 – Beatrice Ask, Swedish politician
* 1957 – Geraint Wyn Davies, Welsh-born Canadian actor
* 1958 – Viacheslav Fetisov, Russian ice hockey player
* 1959 – Clint Howard, American actor
* 1961 – Konstantin Lavronenko, Russian actor
* 1961 – Don Mattingly, American baseball player
* 1961 – Barry Smolin, American radio host, writer, and musician
* 1961 – Nicholas Lyndhurst, British actor
* 1962 – Henry Joseph Nasiff Jr. (AKA: Hank the Angry Drunken Dwarf), American radio personality (d. 2001)
* 1963 – Aubrey de Grey, British biomedical gerontologist
* 1963 – Maurício Gugelmin, Brazilian racing driver
* 1964 – Crispin Glover, American actor
* 1964 – Andy Serkis, English actor
* 1964 – Rosalynn Sumners, American figure skater
* 1965 – Adrian Fernández, Mexican racing driver
* 1965 – Kostas Hatzidakis, Greek politician
* 1965 – April March, American musician
* 1966 – David Chalmers, Australian philosopher
* 1967 – Raymond van Barneveld, Dutch darts player
* 1967 – Lara Jill Miller, American actress
* 1967 – Mike Portnoy, American drummer (Dream Theater, Avenged Sevenfold)
* 1968 – J. D. Roth, American game show host and television personality
* 1968 – Yelena Välbe, Russian cross-country skier
* 1968 – Julia Morris, Australian comedian and television presenter
* 1970 – Shemar Moore, American actor
* 1970 – Adriano Moraes, Brazilian rodeo performer
* 1970 – Saraa, Mongolian singer
* 1971 – Carla Geurts, Dutch swimmer
* 1971 – Allan Houston, American basketball player
* 1971 – Nikos Kyzeridis, Greek footballer
* 1972 – Le Huynh Đuc, Vietnamese footballer
* 1972 – Carmen Electra, American actress
* 1972 – Željko Joksimović, Serbian singer, songwriter and producer
* 1972 – Marko Kon, Serbian singer, composer, songwriter and producer
* 1972 – Stephen Marley, Jamaican musician
* 1973 – Geoff Lloyd, British radio presenter
* 1973 – Lamond Murray, American basketball player
* 1974 – Tina Cousins, English singer
* 1975 – Benjamin Butler (artist), painter
* 1976 – Aldo Bobadilla, Paraguayan football player
* 1976 – Shay Given, Irish footballer
* 1976 – Joey Lawrence, American actor
* 1976 – Chris Mason, Canadian ice hockey goaltender
* 1977 – Johnny "The Bull" Stamboli, professional wrestler
* 1978 – Mirei Kuroda, Japanese gravure idol
* 1978 – Clayne Crawford, American actor
* 1979 – Ludovic Magnin, Swiss football player
* 1979 – Nathan Marquardt, American mixed martial artist
* 1979 – Quinn Weng, Taiwanese singer (Seraphim)
* 1980 – Chris Duffy, American baseball player
* 1980 – Arin Paul, Indian film director
* 1980 – Jasmin Wagner, German singer
* 1982 – Dario Knežević, Croatian football player
* 1983 – Danny Granger, American basketball player
* 1983 – Miranda Kerr, Australian supermodel
* 1983 – Sebastian Ingrosso, Swedish DJ and producer
* 1983 – Joanne King, Irish/English actress
* 1983 – Patrice M'Bock, Cameroonian footballer
* 1983 – Fabio Staibano, Italian rugby player
* 1984 – Tyson Griffin, American mixed martial artist
* 1984 – Edixon Perea Valencia, Colombian football player
* 1985 – Ehsan Jami, Dutch-Iranian politician and activist
* 1986 – Cameron Duncan, New Zealand director (d. 2003)
* 1987 – John Patrick Amedori, American actor
* 1987 – Michael Klauß, German footballer
* 1991 – Ondřej Kraják, Czech footballer

April 20 in History

* 1323 – The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII.
* 1453 – The last naval battle in Byzantine history occurs, as three Genoese galleys escorting a Byzantine transport fight their way through the huge Ottoman blockade fleet and into the Golden Horn.
* 1526 – The last ruler of the Lodi Dynasty, Ibrahim Lodi is defeated and killed by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat.
* 1534 – Jacques Cartier begins the voyage during which he discovers Canada and Labrador.
* 1535 – The Sun dog phenomenon observed over Stockholm and depicted in the famous painting "Vädersolstavlan".
* 1653 – Oliver Cromwell dissolves the Rump Parliament.
* 1657 – Admiral Robert Blake destroys a Spanish silver fleet under heavy fire at Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
* 1657 – Freedom of religion is granted to the Jews of New Amsterdam (later New York City).
* 1689 – The former King James II of England, now deposed, lays siege to Derry.
* 1770 – The Georgian king Erekle II, abandoned by his Russian ally Count Totleben, wins a victory over Ottoman forces at Aspindza.
* 1775 – American Revolutionary War: the Siege of Boston begins, following the battles at Lexington and Concord.
* 1792 – France declares war on Austria, the beginning of French Revolutionary Wars.
* 1809 – Two Austrian army corps in Bavaria are defeated by a First French Empire army led by Napoleon I of France at the Battle of Abensberg on the second day of a four day campaign that ended in a French victory.
* 1810 – The Governor of Caracas declares independence from Spain.
* 1818 – The case of Ashford v Thornton ends, with Abraham Thornton allowed to go free rather than face a retrial for murder, after his demand for trial by battle is upheld.
* 1828 – René Caillié becomes the first non-Muslim to enter Timbouctou.
* 1836 – U.S. Congress passes an act creating the Wisconsin Territory.
* 1861 – American Civil War: Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army in order to command the forces of the state of Virginia.
* 1862 – Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard complete the first pasteurization tests.
* 1865 – Astronomer Pietro Angelo Secchi demonstrates the Secchi disk, which measures water clarity, aboard Pope Pius IX's yacht, the L’Immaculata Concezion.
* 1871 – The Civil Rights Act of 1871 becomes law.
* 1876 – The April Uprising, a key point in modern Bulgarian history, leading to the Russo-Turkish War and the liberation of Bulgaria from domination as an independent part of the Ottoman Empire.
* 1884 – Pope Leo XIII publishes the encyclical Humanum Genus.
* 1902 – Pierre and Marie Curie refine radium chloride.
* 1908 – Opening day of competition in the New South Wales Rugby League.
* 1912 – Opening day for baseball's Tiger Stadium in Detroit, Michigan, and Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts.
* 1914 – 19 men, women, and children die in the Ludlow Massacre during a Colorado coal-miner's strike.
* 1916 – The Chicago Cubs play their first game at Weeghman Park (currently Wrigley Field), defeating the Cincinnati Reds 7-6 in 11 innings.
* 1918 – Manfred von Richthofen, aka The Red Baron, shoots down his 79th and 80th victims, his final victories before his death the following day.
* 1922 – The Soviet government creates South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within Georgian SSR.
* 1926 – Western Electric and Warner Bros. announce Vitaphone, a process to add sound to film.
* 1939 – Adolf Hitler's 50th birthday is celebrated as a national holiday in Nazi Germany.
* 1939 – Billie Holiday records the first Civil Rights song "Strange Fruit".
* 1945 – World War II: US troops capture Leipzig, Germany, only to later cede the city to the Soviet Union.
* 1945 – World War II: Fuehrerbunker: Adolf Hitler makes his last trip to the surface to award Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth.
* 1946 – The League of Nations officially dissolves, giving most of its power to the United Nations.
* 1961 – Failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion of US-backed troops against Cuba.
* 1964 – BBC Two launches with a power cut because of the fire at Battersea Power Station.
* 1968 – English politician Enoch Powell makes his controversial Rivers of Blood speech.
* 1972 – Apollo 16, commanded by John Young, lands on the moon.
* 1978 – Korean Air Flight 902 is shot down by the Soviet Union.
* 1980 – Climax of Berber Spring in Algeria as hundreds of Berber political activists are arrested.
* 1984 – The Good Friday Massacre, an extremely violent ice hockey playoff game, is played in Montreal, Canada.
* 1985 – The ATF raids The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord compound in northern Arkansas.
* 1986 – Pianist Vladimir Horowitz performs in his native Russia for the first time in 61 years.
* 1998 – German terrorist group the Red Army Faction announces their dissolution after 28 years.
* 1999 – Columbine High School massacre: Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold kill 13 people and injure 24 others before committing suicide at Columbine High School in Jefferson County, Colorado.
* 2007 – Johnson Space Center Shooting: A man with a handgun barricades himself in NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas before killing a male hostage and himself.
* 2008 – Danica Patrick wins the Indy Japan 300 becoming the first female driver in history to win an Indy car race.
* 2010 – The Deepwater Horizon oil well explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, killing twelve workers and beginning an oil spill that would last six months.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

April 19 in History

* 65 – The freedman Milichus betrayed Piso’s plot to kill the Emperor Nero and all the conspirators were arrested.
* 1012 – Martyrdom of Ælfheah in Greenwich, London.
* 1529 – The Second Diet of Speyer bans Lutheranism; a group of rulers (German: Fürst) and independent cities (German: Reichsstadt) protests the reinstatement of the Edict of Worms, beginning the Protestant Reformation.
* 1587 – Francis Drake's expedition sinks the Spanish fleet in Cádiz harbor.
* 1713 – With no living male heirs, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, issues the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 to ensure that Habsburg lands and the Austrian throne would be inherited by his daughter, Maria Theresa of Austria (not actually born until 1717).
* 1770 – Captain James Cook sights the eastern coast of what is now Australia.
* 1770 – Marie Antoinette marries Louis XVI in a proxy wedding.
* 1775 – American Revolutionary War: The war begins with an American victory in Concord during the battles of Lexington and Concord.
* 1782 – John Adams secures the Dutch Republic's recognition of the United States as an independent government. The house which he had purchased in The Hague, Netherlands becomes the first American embassy.
* 1809 – An Austrian corps is defeated by the forces of the Duchy of Warsaw in the Battle of Raszyn, part of the struggles of the Fifth Coalition. On the same day the Austrian main army is defeated by a First French Empire Corps led by Louis-Nicolas Davout at the Battle of Teugen-Hausen in Bavaria, part of a four day campaign that ended in a French victory.
* 1810 – Venezuela achieves home rule: Vicente Emparan, Governor of the Captaincy General is removed by the people of Caracas and a junta is installed.
* 1839 – The Treaty of London establishes Belgium as a kingdom.
* 1855 – Visit of Napoleon III to Guildhall, London
* 1861 – American Civil War: Baltimore riot of 1861: a pro-Secession mob in Baltimore, Maryland, attacks United States Army troops marching through the city.
* 1892 – Charles Duryea claims to have driven the first automobile in the United States, in Springfield, Massachusetts.
* 1919 – Leslie Irvin of the United States makes the first successful voluntary free-fall parachute jump using a new kind of self-contained parachute.
* 1927 – Mae West is sentenced to 10 days in jail for obscenity for her play Sex.
* 1928 – The 125th and final fascicle of the Oxford English Dictionary is published.
* 1942 – World War II: In Poland, the Majdan-Tatarski ghetto is established, situated between the Lublin Ghetto and a Majdanek subcamp.
* 1943 – World War II: In Poland, German troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews, beginning the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
* 1943 – Bicycle Day – Swiss chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann deliberately takes LSD for the first time.
* 1945 – Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Guatemala are established.
* 1948 – Burma (now Myanmar) joins the United Nations.
* 1950 – Argentina becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
* 1951 – General Douglas MacArthur retires from the military.
* 1954 – The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan recognises Urdu and Bengali as the national languages of Pakistan.
* 1955 – The German automaker Volkswagen, after six years of selling cars in the United States, founds Volkswagen of America in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey to standardize its dealer and service network.
* 1956 – Actress Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier of Monaco.
* 1960 – Students in South Korea hold a nationwide pro-democracy protest against president Syngman Rhee, eventually forcing him to resign.
* 1961 – The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba ends in success for the defenders.
* 1971 – Sierra Leone becomes a republic, and Siaka Stevens the president.
* 1971 – Vietnam War: Vietnam Veterans Against the War begin a five-day demonstration in Washington, D.C..
* 1971 – Launch of Salyut 1, the first space station.
* 1971 – Charles Manson is sentenced to death for conspiracy to commit the Tate/LaBianca murders.
* 1975 – India's first satellite Aryabhata is launched.
* 1984 – Advance Australia Fair is proclaimed as Australia's national anthem, and green and gold as the national colours.
* 1985 – FBI siege on the compound of The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord (CSAL) in Arkansas
* 1985 – U.S.S.R performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk.
* 1987 – The Simpsons premieres as a short cartoon on The Tracey Ullman Show
* 1989 – A gun turret explodes on the USS Iowa, killing 47 sailors.
* 1993 – The 51-day siege of the Branch Davidian building outside Waco, Texas, USA, ends when a fire breaks out. Eighty-one people die.
* 1993 – South Dakota governor George Mickelson and seven others are killed when a state-owned aircraft crashes in Iowa.
* 1995 – Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, is bombed, killing 168. That same day convicted murderer Richard Wayne Snell, who had ties to one of the bombers, Timothy McVeigh, is executed in Arkansas.
* 1997 – The Red River Flood of 1997 overwhelms the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota. Fire breaks out and spreads in downtown Grand Forks, but high water levels hamper efforts to reach the fire, leading to the destruction of 11 buildings.
* 1999 – The German Bundestag returns to Berlin, the first German parliamentary body to meet there since the Reichstag was dissolved in 1945.
* 2005 – His Eminence Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger is elected the 265th Pope of the Catholic Church following the death of Pope John Paul II. The new Pope takes on the regnal name Benedict XVI.
* 2011 – Fidel Castro resigns from the Communist Party of Cuba's central committee after 45 years of holding the title.