October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 64 days remaining until the end of the year.
* 97 – Emperor Nerva is forced by the Praetorian Guard, to adopt general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus as his heir and successor.
* 306 – Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor.
* 312 – Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman Emperor.
* 1061 – Empress Agnes, acting as Regent for her son, brings about the election of Bishop Cadalus, the Antipope Honorius II.
* 1516 – Battle of Yaunis Khan: Turkish forces under the Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha defeat the Mameluks near Gaza.
* 1531 – Battle of Amba Sel: Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi again defeats the army of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia. The southern part of Ethiopia falls under Imam Ahmad's control.
* 1538 – The first university in the New World, the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, is established.
* 1628 – The Siege of La Rochelle, which had lasted for 14 months, ends with the surrender of the Huguenots.
* 1636 – A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony establishes the first college in what would become the United States, today known as Harvard University.
* 1664 – The Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, is established.
* 1707 – The 1707 Hōei earthquake causes more than 5,000 deaths in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyūshū, Japan
* 1775 – American Revolutionary War: A British proclamation forbids residents from leaving Boston.
* 1776 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of White Plains – British Army forces arrive at White Plains, attack and capture Chatterton Hill from the Americans.
* 1834 – The Battle of Pinjarra is fought in the Swan River Colony in present-day Pinjarra, Western Australia. Between 14 and 40 Aborigines are killed by British colonists.
* 1848 – The first railroad in Spain – between Barcelona and Mataró – is opened.
* 1864 – American Civil War: Second Battle of Fair Oaks ends – Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant withdraw from Fair Oaks, Virginia, after failing to breach the Confederate defenses around Richmond, Virginia.
* 1885 – First porcelain toilet is built
* 1886 – In New York Harbor, President Grover Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty.
* 1891 – The Mino-Owari Earthquake, the largest earthquake in Japan's history, strikes Gifu Prefecture.
* 1893 – Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, Pathétique, receives its première performance in St. Petersburg, only nine days before the composer's death.
* 1918 – World War I: Czechoslovakia is granted independence from Austria-Hungary marking the beginning of independent Czechoslovak state, after 300 years.
* 1918 – New Polish government in Western Galicia is established.
* 1919 – The U.S. Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto, paving the way for Prohibition to begin the following January.
* 1922 – March on Rome: Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini march on Rome and take over the Italian government.
* 1929 – Black Monday, a day in the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which also saw major stock market upheaval.
* 1936 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicates the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary.
* 1940 – World War II: Greece rejects Italy's ultimatum. Italy invades Greece through Albania, marking Greece's entry into World War II.
* 1942 – The Alaska Highway (Alcan Highway) is completed through Canada to Fairbanks, Alaska.
* 1948 – Swiss chemist Paul Müller is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.
* 1954 – The modern Kingdom of the Netherlands is re-founded as a federal monarchy.
* 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev announces that he had ordered the removal of Soviet missile bases in Cuba.
* 1964 – Vietnam War: U.S. officials deny any involvement in bombing North Vietnam.
* 1965 – Nostra Aetate, the "Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions" of the Second Vatican Council, is promulgated by Pope Paul VI; it absolves the Jews of responsibility for the death of Jesus, reversing Innocent III's 760 year-old declaration.
* 1965 – Construction on the St. Louis Arch is completed.
* 1970 – Gary Gabelich sets a land speed record in a rocket-powered automobile called the Blue Flame, fueled with natural gas.
* 1971 – Britain launches its first satellite, Prospero, into low Earth orbit atop a Black Arrow carrier rocket.
* 1982 – Spanish Socialist Workers' Party wins elections, leading to first Socialist government in Spain after death of Franco. Felipe Gonzalez becomes Prime Minister-elect.
* 1985 – Sandinista Daniel Ortega becomes president of Nicaragua and vows to continue the transformation to socialism and alliance with the Soviet Union and Cuba; American policy continues to support the Contras in their revolt against the Nicaraguan government.
* 1986 – The centenary of the dedication of the Statue of Liberty is celebrated in New York Harbor.
* 1995 – 289 people are killed and 265 injured in Baku Metro fire, the deadliest subway disaster.
* 1998 – An Air China jetliner is hijacked by disgruntled pilot Yuan Bin and flown to Taiwan.
* 2005 – Plame affair: Lewis Libby, Vice-president Dick Cheney's chief of staff, is indicted in the Valerie Plame case. Libby resigns later that day.
* 2006 – Funeral service takes place for those executed at Bykivnia forest, outside Kiev, Ukraine. 817 Ukrainian civilians (out of some 100,000) executed by Bolsheviks at Bykivnia in 1930s – early 1940s are reburied.
* 2007 – Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner becomes the first woman elected President of Argentina.
* 2009 – The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing kills 117 and wounds 213.
* 2009 – NASA successfully launches the Ares I-X mission, the only rocket launch for its later-cancelled Constellation program.