Friday, July 11, 2008

July 11 Birthdays

* 1274 - Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland (d. 1329)
* 1366 - Anne of Bohemia, consort of Richard II of England (d. 1394)
* 1561 - Luis de Góngora, Spanish poet (d. 1627)
* 1603 - Kenelm Digby, English privateer (d. 1665)
* 1628 - Tokugawa Mitsukuni, Japanese warlord (d. 1701)
* 1657 - King Frederick I of Prussia (d. 1713)
* 1662 - Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria (d. 1726)
* 1709 - Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, Swedish chemist (d. 1785)
* 1723 - Jean-François Marmontel, French historian and writer (d. 1799)
* 1751 - Caroline Matilda of Wales, queen consort of Denmark and Norway (d. 1775)
* 1754 - Thomas Bowdler, English physician and censor (d. 1825)
* 1767 - John Quincy Adams, President of the United States (d. 1848)
* 1826 - Alexander Afanasyev, Russian folklorist (d. 1871)
* 1832 - Charilaos Trikoupis, Greek politician (d. 1896)
* 1846 - Leon Bloy, French writer (d. 1917)
* 1850 - Annie Armstrong, American missionary leader (d. 1938)
* 1851 - Millie and Christine McCoy, Conjoined twins (d. 1912)
* 1864 - Petar Danov, Bulgarian spiritual teacher (d. 1944)
* 1866 - Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine (d. 1953)
* 1886 - Boris Grigoriev, Russian painter (d. 1939)
* 1892 - Thomas Mitchell, American film actor and screenwriter (d. 1962)
* 1895 - Dolly Wilde, English socialite (d. 1941)
* 1897 - Bull Connor, American law enforcement official (d. 1973)
* 1899 - E. B. White, American writer (d. 1985)
* 1903 - Rudolf Abel, Soviet intelligence officer (d. 1971)
* 1903 - Sidney Franklin, American bullfighter (d. 1976)
* 1906 - Herbert Wehner, German politician (d. 1990)
* 1910 - Irene Hervey, American actress (d. 1998)
* 1913 - Cordwainer Smith, American writer (d. 1966)
* 1916 - Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov, Russian physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2002)
* 1916 - Reg Varney, English actor
* 1916 - Gough Whitlam, 21st Prime Minister of Australia
* 1920 - Yul Brynner, Russian-born actor (d. 1985)
* 1921 - Ilse Werner, Dutch-born actress
* 1922 - Gene Evans, American actor (d. 1998)
* 1924 - César Lattes, Brazilian physicist (d. 2005)
* 1924 - Brett Somers, Canadian-born actress (d. 2007)
* 1924 - Charlie Tully, Northern Irish footballer (d. 1971)
* 1925 - Nicolai Gedda, Swedish tenor
* 1926 - Frederick Buechner, American author
* 1929 - David Kelly, Irish actor
* 1929 - Hermann Prey, German baritone (d. 1998)
* 1930 - Harold Bloom, American literary critic
* 1931 - Thurston Harris, American singer (d. 1990)
* 1931 - Tab Hunter, American actor
* 1931 - Tullio Regge, Italian physicist
* 1932 - Jean-Guy Talbot, French Canadian ice hockey player
* 1933 - Bob McGrath, American actor
* 1934 - Giorgio Armani, Italian fashion designer
* 1935 - Oliver Napier, Northern Irish politician
* 1935 - Frederick Hemke, American saxophonist
* 1937 - Pai Hsien-yung, Taiwanese writer
* 1940 - Yvon Charbonneau, French Canadian union leader and politician
* 1941 - Clive Puzey, Zimbabwean racing driver
* 1943 - Rolf Stommelen, German race car driver (d. 1983)
* 1944 - Myra Gale Brown, former wife of Jerry Lee Lewis
* 1945 - Patrick Joseph McGrath, Catholic bishop
* 1946 - Cuthbert Johnson, Benedictine abbot.
* 1947 - Bo Lundgren, Swedish politician
* 1949 - Liona Boyd, English-born musician
* 1950 - Pervez Hoodbhoy, Pakistani nuclear physicist
* 1950 - Bruce McGill, American actor
* 1950 - J. R. Morgan, British classical scholar
* 1950 - Bonnie Pointer, American singer (Pointer Sisters)
* 1952 - Bill Barber, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1952 - John Kettley, English weather forecaster
* 1953 - Peter Brown, American singer, songwriter and producer
* 1953 - Mindy Sterling, American actress
* 1953 - Leon Spinks, American former boxer
* 1954 - Butch Reed, American professional wrestler
* 1956 - Sela Ward, American actress
* 1957 - Peter Murphy, British musician - (Bauhaus)
* 1957 - Michael Rose, Jamaican musician (Black Uhuru)
* 1958 - Hugo Sánchez, Mexican footballer
* 1958 - Andrew Gilbert-Scott, British racing driver
* 1959 - Richie Sambora, American musician (Bon Jovi)
* 1959 - Suzanne Vega, American singer
* 1962 - Gaetan Duchesne, French Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2007)
* 1962 - Pauline McLynn, Irish actress
* 1963 - Al MacInnis, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1963 - Lisa Rinna, American actress
* 1964 - Craig Charles, English actor
* 1964 - Kyrill, Prince of Preslav, titular Bulgarian royal family
* 1965 - Tony Cottee, English footballer
* 1965 - Ernesto Hoost, Dutch kickboxer
* 1965 - Scott Shriner, American musician (Weezer)
* 1966 - Greg Grunberg, American actor
* 1966 - Mick Molloy, Australian comedian
* 1967 - Jeff Corwin, American naturalist and TV personality
* 1968 - Michael Geist, Canadian academic
* 1968 - Esera Tuaolo, American football player
* 1969 - David Tao, Taiwanese singer-songwriter
* 1970 - Justin Chambers, American actor
* 1971 - Leisha Hailey, American actress and musician Uh Huh Her (band)
* 1972 - Jussi 69, Finnish musician (The 69 Eyes)
* 1972 - Steven Richards, Australian racing driver
* 1972 - Michael Rosenbaum, American actor
* 1973 - Andrew Bird, American musician
* 1973 - Konstantinos Kenteris, Greek athlete
* 1974 - Hermann Hreiðarsson, Icelandic footballer
* 1974 - André Ooijer, Dutch footballer
* 1975 - Willie Anderson, American football player
* 1975 - Rubén Baraja, Spanish footballer
* 1975 - Riona Hazuki, Japanese actress
* 1975 - Samer el Nahhal, Finnish musician (Lordi)
* 1975 - Lil' Kim, American rapper
* 1976 - Eduardo Nájera, Mexican-born basketball player
* 1977 - Brandon Short, American football player
* 1980 - T.J. Wilson, Canadian professional wrestler
* 1981 - Carla Campbell, Jamaican model
* 1981 - Andre Johnson, American football player
* 1981 - Aaron Proctor, American professional wrestling promoter & politician
* 1982 - Chris Cooley, American football player
* 1983 - Peter Cincotti, American singer songwriter
* 1983 - Kelly Poon, Singaporean singer
* 1983 - Evan Roberts, American radio broadcaster
* 1983 - Marie Serneholt, Swedish musician (A*Teens)
* 1983 - Kellie Shirley , Actress
* 1984 - Yorman Bazardo, Venezuelan baseball player
* 1984 - Tanith Belbin, Canadian ice dancer
* 1984 - Hitomi Hyuga, Japanese actress
* 1984 - Rachael Taylor, Australian actress
* 1985 - Aki Maeda, Japanese actress
* 1986 - Yoann Gourcuff, French footballer
* 1986 - Ryan Jarvis, English footballer
* 1987 - Shigeaki Kato, Japanese Idol (member of NEWS (band))
* 1989 - David Henrie, American Actor
* 1990 - Caroline Wozniacki, Danish tennis player
* 1990 - Connor Paolo, Actor

July 11 in history

* 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy.
* 1156 - Siege of Shirakawa-den in Japan.
* 1302 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch) - a coalition around the Flemish cities defeats the king of France's huge army.
* 1346 - Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
* 1405 - Chinese fleet commander Zheng He sets sail to explore the world for the first time.
* 1476 - Giuliano della Rovere is appointed bishop of Coutances.
* 1576 - Martin Frobisher sights Greenland.
* 1616 - Samuel de Champlain returns to Quebec.
* 1735 - Mathematical calculations suggest that it was on this day that Pluto moved from the ninth to the eighth most distant planet from the Sun for the last time before 1979.
* 1740 - Pogrom: Jews are expelled from Little Russia.
* 1750 - Halifax, Nova Scotia is almost completely destroyed by fire.
* 1776 - Captain James Cook begins his third voyage.
* 1789 - Jacques Necker is dismissed as France's Finance Minister sparking the Storming of the Bastille.
* 1796 - The U.S. takes possession of Detroit from Great Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.
* 1798 - The United States Marine Corps is re-established; they had been disbanded after the American Revolutionary War.
* 1804 - Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr mortally wounds former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in a duel.
* 1811 - Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro publishes his memoir about molecular content of gases.
* 1848 - Waterloo railway station in London opens.
* 1859 - A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens is published.
* 1864 - Confederate forces attempt to invade Washington, D.C.
* 1882 - The British Mediterranean fleet begins the Bombardment of Alexandria in Egypt as part of the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War.
* 1889 - Tijuana, Mexico, is founded
* 1893 - The first cultured pearl is obtained by Kokichi Mikimoto.
* 1895 - The brothers Lumière demonstrate film technology to scientists.
* 1897 - Salomon August Andrée leaves Spitsbergen to attempt to reach the North pole by balloon. He later crashes and dies.
* 1906 - The Gillette-Brown murder inspires Theodore Dreiser's An American Tragedy
* 1914 - Babe Ruth makes his debut in Major league baseball.
* 1919 - The eight-hour working day and free Sunday become law in the Netherlands.
* 1921 - A truce is called in the Irish War of Independence; see Irish calendar.
* 1921 - Former US President William Howard Taft is sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, becoming the only person to ever be both President and Chief Justice.
* 1921 - Outer Mongolia gains its independence from the Republic of China.
* 1922 - The Hollywood Bowl opens.
* 1936 - Triborough Bridge in New York City is opened to traffic.
* 1940 - World War II: Vichy France regime is formally established. Henri Philippe Pétain becomes Prime Minister of France.
* 1943 - Massacres of Poles in Volhynia
* 1943 - World War II: Allied invasion of Sicily - German and Italian troops launch a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily.
* 1944 - Franklin D. Roosevelt announces that he will run for a fourth term as President of the United States.
* 1947 - The Exodus 1947 heads to Palestine from France.
* 1950 - Pakistan joins the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank.
* 1955 - The phrase In God We Trust is added to all US currency.
* 1957 - Prince Karim Husseini Aga Khan IV inherits the office of Imamat as the 49th Imam of Shia Imami Ismaili worldwide, after the death of Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah Aga Khan III
* 1960 - Independence of Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger.
* 1960 - To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee is first published.
* 1962 - First transatlantic satellite television transmission.
* 1971 - Copper mines in Chile are nationalized.
* 1973 - A Brazilian Boeing 707 crashes near Paris on approach to Orly Airport, killing 123 of the 134 on-board.
* 1977 - Martin Luther King is posthumously awarded the Medal of Freedom.
* 1978 - Los Alfaques Disaster: a truck carrying liquid gas crashes and explodes at a coastal campsite in Tarragona, Spain killing 216 tourists.
* 1979 - The space station Skylab returns to Earth.
* 1983 - A Boeing 727 crashes into hilly terrain after a tail strike in Cuenca, Ecuador, claiming 119 lives.
* 1987 - According to the United Nations, the world population crossed the 5,000,000,000 (5 billion) mark.
* 1990 - Oka Crisis: First Nations land dispute in Quebec, Canada begins.
* 1991 - A Nationair DC-8 crashes during an emergency landing at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, killing 261. The Canadian charter flight was ferrying Hajj pilgrims on behalf of Nigeria Airways.
* 1995 - Full diplomatic relations are established between the United States and Vietnam.
* 1995 - Srebrenica Genocide: Serb army from Yugoslavia and Bosnia captures the Bosniak town of Srebrenica. More than eight thousands inhabitants are murdered.
* 1995 - A Cubana de Aviacion Antonov An-24 crashes into the Caribbean off southeast Cuba killing 44 people.
* 2006 - 209 people are killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbai, India.

Tuesday, July 8, 2008

July 7 Birthdays

* 1053 - Emperor Shirakawa of Japan (d. 1129)
* 1119 - Emperor Sutoku of Japan (d. 1164)
* 1528 - Anna of Austria, Duchess of Bavaria, daughter of Ferdinand I (d. 1590)
* 1586 - Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, English statesman (d. 1646)
* 1656 - Guru Har Krishan, 8th Guru of Sikhism (d. 1664)
* 1746 - Giuseppe Piazzi, Italian astronomer (d. 1826)
* 1752 - Joseph-Marie Jacquard, French inventor (d. 1834)
* 1766 - Guillaume Philibert Duhesme, French general (d. 1815)
* 1843 - Camillo Golgi, Italian physician and Nobel laureate (d. 1926)
* 1848 - Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, Brazilian politician (d. 1919)
* 1851 - Charles Tindley, American gospel music composer (d. 1933)
* 1855 - Ludwig Ganghofer, German writer (d. 1920)
* 1860 - Gustav Mahler, Austrian composer (d. 1911)
* 1874 - Erwin Bumke, German jurist (d. 1945)
* 1884 - Lion Feuchtwanger, German dramatist (d. 1958)
* 1887 - Marc Chagall, Russian painter (d. 1985)
* 1891 - Virginia Rappe, Silent Film Actress (d. 1921)
* 1893 - Miroslav Krleža, Croatian writer (d. 1981)
* 1899 - George Cukor, American director (d. 1983)
* 1900 - Earle E. Partridge, United States Air Force general (d. 1990)
* 1901 - Vittorio De Sica, Italian director (d. 1974)
* 1901 - Sam Katzman, American film producer (d. 1973)
* 1901 - Eiji Tsuburaya, Japanese film producer (d. 1970)
* 1902 - Ted "Double Duty" Radcliffe, American baseball player (d. 2005)
* 1904 - Simone Beck, French chef (d. 1991)
* 1906 - William Feller, Croatian mathematician (d. 1970)
* 1906 - Satchel Paige, American baseball player (d. 1982)
* 1906 - Anton Karas, Viennese musician (d. 1985)
* 1907 - Robert A. Heinlein, American writer (d. 1988)
* 1908 - Revilo P. Oliver, American professor (d. 1994)
* 1911 - Gian Carlo Menotti, Italian-born composer (d. 2007)
* 1913 - Pinetop Perkins, American blues musician
* 1915 - Margaret Abigail Walker Alexander, African American Novelist and poet (d. 1998)
* 1917 - Fidel Sánchez Hernández, Salvadorian politician (d. 2003)
* 1919 - Jon Pertwee, British actor (d. 1996)
* 1921 - Adolf von Thadden, German politician (d. 1996)
* 1921 - Ezzard Charles, American boxer (d. 1975)
* 1922 - Pierre Cardin, French fashion designer
* 1924 - Mary Ford, American singer (d. 1977)
* 1925 - Wally Phillips, American radio personality (d. 2008)
* 1929 - Hasan Abidi, Pakistani journalist and poet (d. 2005)
* 1927 - Doc Severinsen, American composer and musician
* 1927 - Charlie Louvin, American country musician
* 1930 - Henry (Hank) Mobley, American Jazz composer and saxophonist (d. 1986)
* 1931 - David Eddings, American author
* 1932 - Josef Zawinul, Austrian composer and musician (d. 2007)
* 1933 - Murray Halberg, New Zealand runner
* 1933 - David McCullough, American historian and author
* 1936 - Nikos Xilouris, Greek singer (d. 1980)
* 1936 - Jo Siffert, Swiss race car driver (d.1971)
* 1937 - Tung Chee-Hwa, Hong Kong administrator
* 1940 - Ringo Starr, English drummer and singer (The Beatles)
* 1941 - Michael Howard, British politician
* 1941 - Bill Oddie, English comedian and ornithologist
* 1942 - Carmen Duncan, Australian actress
* 1943 - Toto Cutugno, Italian singer
* 1943 - Joel Siegel, American film critic (d. 2007)
* 1945 - Michael Ancram, British politician
* 1946 - Joe Spano, American actor
* 1947 - Felix Standaert, Belgian diplomat
* 1947 - Howard Rheingold, American author
* 1947 - Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, King of Nepal
* 1947 - Rob Townsend, English drummer (Family)
* 1947 - Víctor Manuel, Spanish songwriter and singer
* 1948 - Jean Leclerc, French-Canadian actor
* 1949 - Shelley Duvall, American actress
* 1952 - Mando Guerrero, Mexican professional wrestler
* 1955 - Len Barker, American baseball player
* 1957 - Jonathan Dayton, American film director
* 1957 - Berry Sakharof, Turkish-born Israeli guitarist (Minimal Compact)
* 1959 - Billy Campbell, American actor
* 1959 - Jessica Hahn, American model
* 1959 - Ben Linder, American engineer (d. 1987)
* 1960 - Kevin A. Ford, American astronaut
* 1963 - Vonda Shepard, American singer
* 1965 - Paula Devicq, Canadian actress
* 1965 - Mo Collins, American actress
* 1965 - Jeremy Kyle, English television presenter
* 1966 - Jim Gaffigan, American comedian
* 1966 - Gundula Krause, German folk violinist
* 1966 - Neil Tobin, American magician
* 1967 - Tom Kristensen, Danish race car driver
* 1967 - Jackie Neal, American singer (d. 2005)
* 1968 - Amy Carlson, American actress
* 1968 - Jorja Fox, American actress
* 1968 - Jeff VanderMeer, American writer
* 1969 - Sylke Otto, German luger
* 1969 - Joe Sakic, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1969 - Nathalie Simard, French Canadian singer
* 1969 - Cree Summer, American voice actress
* 1969 - Robin Weigert, American actress
* 1970 - Wayne McCullough, Irish boxer
* 1970 - Erik Zabel, German cyclist
* 1970 - Robia LaMorte, American actress and dancer
* 1971 - Alistair Potts, British rower
* 1972 - Lisa Leslie, American basketball player
* 1972 - Manfred Stohl, Austrian rally driver
* 1973 - Troy Garity, American actor
* 1973 - José Jiménez, Dominican baseball player
* 1973 - Matt Mantei, American baseball player
* 1973 - Kārlis Skrastiņš, Latvian ice hockey player
* 1973 - Natsuki Takaya, Japanese manga-ka
* 1974 - Patrick Lalime, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1975 - Tony Benshoof, American luger
* 1975 - Michael Voss, Australian rules footballer
* 1976 - Dominic Foley, Irish footballer
* 1977 - Felix Vasquez, New York City Housing Authority employee
* 1979 - Anastasios Gousis, Greek sprinter
* 1979 - Carl Breeze, British racing driver
* 1980 - John Buck, American baseball player
* 1980 - Deidre Downs, American beauty queen
* 1980 - Michelle Kwan, American figure skater
* 1980 - Kaisa Jouhki, Finnish vocalist (Battlelore)
* 1980 - Dan Whitesides, American drummer (The Used)
* 1981 - Synyster Gates, American guitarist (Avenged Sevenfold)
* 1981 - Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Indian cricketer
* 1982 - Cassidy, American rapper
* 1982 - Mike Glita, American bassist (Senses Fail)
* 1982 - George Owu, Ghanaian footballer
* 1983 - Justin Davies, Australian rules footballer
* 1983 - D. Woods, American singer (Danity Kane)
* 1984 - Minas Alozidis, Greek hurdler
* 1984 - Mohammad Ashraful, Bangladeshi cricketer
* 1984 - Marie-Mai, Canadian singer
* 1987 - Lena Ma, Miss World Canada 4th runner-up
* 1988 - Kaci Brown, American singer
* 1989 - Giannoulis Fakinos, Greek footballer

July 7 in History

1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death.
1534 - European colonization of the Americas: first known exchange between Europeans and natives of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in New Brunswick.
1543 - French troops invade Luxembourg.
1585 - Treaty of Nemours abolishes tolerance to Protestants in France.
1777 - American Revolutionary War: Battle of Hubbardton
1798 - Quasi-War: the U.S. Congress rescinds treaties with France sparking the 'war.'
1799 - Ranjit Singh's men take up their positions outside Lahore.
1807 - Napoleonic Wars: Peace of Tilsit between France, Prussia and Russia ends the Fourth Coalition.
1846 - Mexican-American War: American troops occupy Monterey and Yerba Buena, thus beginning the United States conquest of California.
1863 - United States begins first military draft; exemptions cost $100
1865 - American Civil War: four conspirators in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln are hanged.
1892 - Katipunan: the Revolutionary Philippine Brotherhood is established leading to the fall of the Spanish Empire in Asia.
1898 - President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.
1915 - World War I: end of First Battle of the Isonzo.
1915 - A Great Gorge and International Railway trolley with an extreme overload of 157 passengers crashes near Queenston, Ontario, killing 15.
1917 - Russian Revolution: Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov forms Provisional Government in Russia after the deposing of the Tsar Nicholas II.
1928 - Sliced bread is sold for the first time by the Chillicothe Baking Company of Chillicothe, Missouri. It is described as “the greatest forward step in the baking industry since bread was wrapped". [1]
1930 - Industrialist Henry J. Kaiser begins construction of the Boulder Dam (now known as Hoover Dam).
1937 - Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Lugou Bridge - Japanese forces invade Beijing, China.
1941 - World War II: U.S. forces land in Iceland to forestall an invasion by Germany.
1941 - World War II: Beirut is occupied by Free France and British troops.
1946 - Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini becomes the first American to be canonized.
1946 - Howard Hughes nearly dies when his XF-11 spy plane prototype crashes in a Beverly Hills neighborhood.
1947 - Alleged and disputed Roswell UFO incident.
1953 - Che Guevara sets out on a trip through Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador.
1954 - Formation of the TANU in Tanzania
1956 - Fritz Moravec reaches the peak of Gasherbrum II (8,035 m).
1958 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act into United States law.
1959 - 14:28 UT Venus occults the star Regulus. This rare event was used to determine the diameter of Venus and the structure of the Venusian atmosphere.
1967 - Beginning of the civil war in Biafra.
1969 - In Canada, the Official Languages Act is adopted making the French language equal to the English language throughout the Federal government.
1978 - The Solomon Islands become independent from the United Kingdom.
1980 - Institution of sharia in Iran.
1980 - The Safra massacre in Lebanon.
1983 - Cold War: Samantha Smith, a U.S. schoolgirl, flies to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Secretary General Yuri Andropov.
1991 - Yugoslav Wars: the Brioni Agreement ends the ten-day independence war in Slovenia against the rest of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
2002 - A scandal breaks out in the United Kingdom when news reports accuse MI6 of sheltering Abu Qatada, the supposed European Al Qaeda leader.
2003 - The United Communist Party of Armenia is formed.
2005 - A series of four terrorist explosions occur on London's transport system killing 56 people, including four suicide bombers.
2005 - Influenced javascript:void(0)
Publish Postby Live 8, the G8 leaders pledge to double 2004 levels of aid to Africa from US$25 to US$50 billion by the year 2010.
2007 - Pope Benedict XVI issues the Apostolic Letter Summorum Pontificum, removing restrictions on celebrating the old Tridentine Mass.
# 2007 - Worldwide performances by charity event Live Earth

Saturday, July 5, 2008

July 5 Birthdays

* 1321 - Joan of The Tower, Queen consort of Scotland (d. 1362)
* 1586 - Thomas Hooker, Connecticut colonist (d. 1647)
* 1653 - Thomas Pitt, British Governor of Madras (d. 1726)
* 1675 - Mary Walcott, American accuser at the Salem witch trials
* 1717 - Pedro III of Portugal, consort of Maria I of Portugal (d. 1786)
* 1718 - Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford, Viceroy of Ireland (d. 1794)
* 1794 - Sylvester Graham, American nutritionist (d. 1851)
* 1801 - David Farragut, American naval commander (d. 1870)
* 1805 - Robert Fitz Roy, British naval officer and scientist (d. 1865)
* 1810 - P.T. Barnum, American circus owner (d. 1891)
* 1820 - William John Macquorn Rankine, Scottish engineer and physicist (d. 1872)
* 1829 - Ignacio Mariscal, Writer and Mexican diplomat (d. 1910)
* 1841 - William C. Whitney, American financier (d. 1904)
* 1853 - Cecil Rhodes, South African politician, founder of Rhodesia (d. 1902)
* 1860 - Robert Bacon, American politician (d. 1919)
* 1872 - Edouard Herriot, French politician (d. 1957)
* 1874 - Eugen Fischer, Nazi physician (d. 1967)
* 1879 - Wanda Landowska, Polish harpsichordist (d. 1959)

* 1879 - Dwight F. Davis, American tennis player and politician (d. 1945)
* 1880 - Jan Kubelík, Czech violinist (d. 1940)
* 1882 - Inayat Khan, Indian sufi (d. 1927).
* 1885 - Blas Infante, Spanish politician (d. 1936)
* 1885 - André Lhote, French painter (d. 1962)
* 1886 - Willem Drees, Dutch politician (d. 1988)
* 1888 - Herbert Spencer Gasser, American physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1963)
* 1889 - Jean Cocteau, French writer (d. 1963)
* 1890 - Frederick Lewis Allen, American social historian (d. 1954)
* 1891 - John Howard Northrop, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1987)
* 1891 - Tin Ujević, Croatian poet (d. 1955)
* 1895 - Gordon Jacob, English composer (d. 1984)
* 1898 - Yip Man, Ving Tsun Sifu and Master of Style (Gung-Gung) (d. 1972)
* 1899 - Marcel Achard, French playwright, screenwriter and author (d. 1974)
* 1901 - Sergey Obraztsov, Soviet puppet master (d. 1992)
* 1902 - Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., American diplomat (d. 1985)
* 1904 - Harold Acton, American writer and dilettante (d. 1994)
* 1904 - Ernst Mayr, American biologist (d. 2005)
* 1904 - Milburn Stone, American actor (d. 1980)
* 1905 - Myles Horton, American educator and Civil Rights Movement teacher (d. 1990)
* 1910 - Georges Vedel, French public law (d. 2002)
* 1911 - Georges Pompidou, French politician (d. 1974)
* 1913 - Smiley Lewis, American musician (d. 1966)
* 1915 - John Woodruff, American athlete (d. 2007)
* 1918 - George Rochberg, American composer (d. 2005)
* 1918 - René Lecavalier, French Canadian radio host and television sportscaster (d. 1999)
* 1920 - Mary Louise Hancock, American politician and activist
* 1924 - Niels Jannasch, Canadian historian and museum curator (d. 2001)
* 1924 - János Starker, Hungarian cellist
* 1928 - Warren Oates, American actor (d. 1982)
* 1928 - Pierre Mauroy, French politician
* 1928 - Katherine Helmond, American actress
* 1932 - Billy Laughlin, American actor (d. 1948)
* 1932 - Gyula Horn, former Hungarian prime minister
* 1935 - John Gilmore, American true crime author
* 1936 - Shirley Knight, American actress
* 1936 - James Mirrlees, Scottish economist, Nobel Prize laureate
* 1938 - Ronnie Self, American rock singer and songwriter (d. 1981)
* 1939 - Booker Edgerson, American football player
* 1940 - Chuck Close, American painter and photographer
* 1942 - Johannes Löhr, German footballer and trainer
* 1943 - Curt Blefary, American baseball player (d. 2001)
* 1943 - Robbie Robertson, Canadian guitarist (The Band).
* 1945 - Humberto Benítez Treviño, Mexican Politician and Attorney General of México.
* 1946 - Pierre-Marc Johnson, Quebecois lawyer, physician and politician
* 1946 - Paul Smith, British fashion designer
* 1946 - Gerardus 't Hooft, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize laurete
* 1948 - William Hootkins, American actor (d. 2005)
* 1950 - Huey Lewis, American musician (Huey Lewis & the News)
* 1950 - Michael Monarch, American guitarist (Steppenwolf)
* 1951 - Rich Gossage, American baseball player
* 1951 - Keiko Fuji, Japanese enka singer
* 1954 - Leni Björklund, Swedish politician
* 1954 - John Wright, New Zealand cricketer
* 1954 - Jimmy Crespo, American guitarist (Aerosmith)
* 1955 - Peter McNamara, Australian tennis player
* 1956 - Patsy Pease, American actress
* 1956 - James Lofton, American football player and coach
* 1957 - David Hanson, politician
* 1957 - David Pinkney , British Touring Car Racer
* 1957 - Doug Wilson, Canadian hockey player
* 1958 - Paul Daniel, British opera and symphony conductor
* 1958 - Tzipi Livni, Israeli politician
* 1958 - Bill Watterson, American cartoonist
* 1959 - Marc Cohn, American singer and songwriter
* 1960 - Pruitt Taylor Vince, American actor
* 1960 - James M. Kelly, American politician
* 1961 - Isabelle Poulenard, French soprano
* 1963 - Edie Falco, American actress
* 1963 - Russ Lorenson, American singer and actor
* 1965 - Eyran Katsenelenbogen, Israeli jazz pianist
* 1966 - Kathryn Erbe, American actress
* 1966 - Susannah Doyle, British actress
* 1966 - Gianfranco Zola, Italian footballer
* 1967 - Silvia Ziche, Italian comics artist
* 1968 - Ken Akamatsu, Mangaka
* 1968 - Kenji Ito, Japanese composer
* 1968 - John Ruskin a.k.a. Nardwuar the Human Serviette, Canadian journalist
* 1968 - Alex Zülle, Swiss cyclist
* 1969 - John LeClair, American hockey player
* 1969 - RZA, American rapper (Wu-Tang Clan)
* 1969 - Jenji Kohan, American television writer and producer
* 1970 - Mac Dre, American rapper (d. 2004)
* 1971 - Derek McInnes, Scottish footballer
* 1972 - Letha Weapons, porn actress
* 1973 - Marcus Allbäck, Swedish footballer
* 1973 - Bengt Lagerberg, Swedish musician (The Cardigans)
* 1973 - Róisín Murphy, Irish musician
* 1973 - René Spies, German bobsledder
* 1974 - Márcio Amoroso, Brazilian footballer
* 1975 - Hernán Crespo, Argentinian footballer
* 1975 - Gunnar H. Thomsen, Faroese musician (Týr)
* 1975 - Kip Gamblin, Australian dancer and actor
* 1975 - Ai Sugiyama, Japanese tennis player
* 1976 - Nuno Gomes, Portuguese footballer
* 1976 - Marina Dias, Brazilian model
* 1976 - Bizarre, American rapper (D12)
* 1977 - Royce Da 5'9", American rapper
* 1977 - Nicolas Kiefer, German tennis player.
* 1979 - Stiliyan Petrov, Bulgarian footballer
* 1979 - Shane Filan, Irish musician (Westlife)
* 1979 - Amélie Mauresmo, French tennis player
* 1980 - Eva Green, French actress
* 1980 - Jason Wade, American musician (Lifehouse)
* 1980 - David Rozehnal, Czech footballer
* 1981 - Jesse Crain, Canadian baseball player
* 1982 - Alberto Gilardino, Italian footballer
* 1982 - Philippe Gilbert, Belgian cyclist
* 1983 - Zheng Jie, Chinese tennis player
* 1984 - Yu Yamada, Ryukyuan model, actress and singer
* 1985 - Stephanie McIntosh, Australian pop singer and actress
* 1985 - Nick O'Malley, British musician (Arctic Monkeys)
* 1989 - Joseph King, American musician (Canvas)
* 1991 - Jason Dolley, American actor

July 5 in history

* 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance, the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England.
* 1610 - John Guy sets sail from Bristol with 39 other colonists for Newfoundland.
* 1687 - Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.
* 1770 - Battle of Chesma and Battle of Larga between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
* 1775 - US Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition.
* 1803 - The convention of Artlenburg leads to the French occupation of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king).
* 1809 - Battle of Wagram starts, the two-day battle was the largest yet of the Napoleonic Wars.
* 1811 - Venezuela declares independence from Spain.
* 1813 - War of 1812: Three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, New York begin.
* 1814 - War of 1812: Battle of Chippawa - American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.
* 1830 - France invades Algeria.
* 1833 - Admiral Charles Napier defeats the navy of the Portuguese usurper Dom Miguel at the third Battle of Cape St. Vincent.
* 1865 - The Salvation Army is founded in the East End of London, England.
* 1878 - The coat of arms of the Baku governorate was established.
* 1884 - Germany takes possession of Cameroon.
* 1934 - "Bloody Thursday" - Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco.
* 1935 - The National Labor Relations Act, which governs labor relations in the United States, is signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
* 1937 - Spam, the luncheon meat, was introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation.
* 1937 - Highest recorded temperature in Canada, at Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan: 45° C (113° F).
* 1940 - World War II: The United Kingdom and the Vichy France government break off diplomatic relations.
* 1941 - World War II: German troops reach the Dniepr River.
* 1943 - The Battle of Kursk, the largest full-scale battle in history, included world largest tank battle at Prokhorovka village, July 12.
* 1943 - World War II: An Allied invasion fleet sails for Sicily (Operation Husky, July 10, 1943).
* 1945 - World War II: Liberation of the Philippines declared.
* 1946 - The bikini is introduced in Paris, France.
* 1947 - Larry Doby signs a contract with the Cleveland Indians baseball team, becoming the first black player in the American League. (Jackie Robinson had broken the color barrier with the Brooklyn Dodgers in the National League 11 weeks earlier.)
* 1948 - British National Health Service Act enacted.
* 1950 - Korean War: Task Force Smith - First clash between American and North Korean forces.
* 1950 - Zionism: The Knesset passes the Law of Return which grants all Jews the right to immigrate to Israel.
* 1951 - William Shockley invents the junction transistor.
* 1954 - The BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin.
* 1954 - Andhra Pradesh High Court is established.
* 1958 - First ascent of Gasherbrum I, 11th highest peak on the earth.
* 1962 - Algeria becomes independent from France.
* 1970 - Air Canada Flight 621 crashes near Toronto International Airport killing 109 people.
* 1971 - Right to vote: the Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18 years, is formally certified by President Richard Nixon.
* 1973 - Catastrophic BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) in Kingman, Arizona, following a fire that broke out as propane was being transferred from a railroad car to a storage tank, kills 11 firefighters. This explosion has become a classic incident studied in fire department training programs worldwide.
* 1975 - Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title.
* 1975 - Cape Verde gains its independence from Portugal.
* 1977 - Military coup in Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto the very first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan overthrown.
* 1987 - First instance of the LTTE using suicide attacks on Sri Lankan Army. The Black Tigers are born and in the following years continue to use it to deadly effect.
* 1989 - Iran-Contra Affair: Oliver North is sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service.
* 1994 - The United States announced it would refuse further unrestricted immigration from Haiti.
* 1996 - Dolly the sheep becomes the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.
* 1998 - Japan launches a probe to Mars, and thus joins the United States and Russia as a space exploring nation.
* 2003 - SARS is declared to be contained by the WHO.
* 2004 - First Indonesian presidential election by the nation.
* 2006 - North Korea launched at least two short-range Nodong-2 missiles, one SCUD missile and one long-range Taepodong-2 missile.
* 2006 - Emergency United Nations Security Council meeting held at the U.N in New York City because of the North Korean missile tests a day before.

Wednesday, July 2, 2008

1776 - The Continental Congress adopts a resolution severing ties with Great Britain although the wording of the formal Declaration of Independence

The Lee Resolution, also known as the resolution of independence, was an act of the Second Continental Congress declaring the Thirteen Colonies to be independent of the British Empire. First proposed on June 7, 1776, by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia, after receiving instructions from the Virginia Convention and its President, Edmund Pendleton (in fact Lee used, almost verbatim, the language from the instructions in his resolution). Voting on the resolution was delayed for several weeks while support for independence was consolidated. Meanwhile, a Committee of Five was appointed to prepare a document to explain the reasons for independence. The resolution was finally approved on July 2, 1776. The text of the document formally announcing this action, the United States Declaration of Independence, was approved on July 4.

1863 - American Civil War: second day of the Battle of Gettysburg.

On the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled. The Union line was laid out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. Lee launched a heavy assault on the Union left flank, and fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devil's Den, and the Peach Orchard. On the Union right, demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. Across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines.

1937 - Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan disappear over the Pacific Ocean while attempting to make the first equatorial round-the-world flight.

Amelia Mary Earhart (24 July 1897 – missing 2 July 1937, declared dead 5 January 1939) was a noted American aviation pioneer, and author. Earhart was the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross, which she was awarded as the first aviatrix to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She set many other records, wrote best-selling books about her flying experiences, and was instrumental in the formation of The Ninety-Nines, an organization for female pilots.

During an attempt to make a circumnavigational flight of the globe in 1937, Earhart disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean near Howland Island. Fascination with her life, career and disappearance continues to this day.

1979 - The first U.S. coin to honor a woman, the Susan B. Anthony dollar, is introduced.

1979 - The first U.S. coin to honor a woman, the Susan B. Anthony dollar, is introduced. The Susan B. Anthony dollar is a United States coin minted from 1979 to 1981, and again in 1999. It depicts women's suffrage campaigner Susan B. Anthony. The reverse depicts an eagle flying above the moon (with the Earth in the background), a design adapted from the Apollo 11 mission insignia that was also present on the previously issued Eisenhower dollar.

1990 - A stampede inside a pedestrian tunnel leads to the deaths of 1,426 pilgrims in Mecca during hajj.

1990 - A stampede inside a pedestrian tunnel leads to the deaths of 1,426 pilgrims in Mecca during hajj.
The Hajj is a pilgrimage to Mecca. It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world. It is the fifth pillar of Islam, an obligation that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so. It is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God (Arabic: Allah). The pilgrimage occurs from the 10th to the 15th day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the 12th month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar used in the Western world, the Gregorian date of the Hajj is eleven days earlier from year to year. In 2007, the Hajj was from December 17 to December 21; in 2008 from the first week of December.

1962 - The first Wal-Mart store opens for business in Rogers, Arkansas.

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (NYSE: WMT) is an American public corporation that runs a chain of large, discount department stores. It is the world's largest public corporation by revenue, according to the 2008 Fortune Global 500. Founded by Sam Walton in 1962, it was incorporated on October 31, 1969, and listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1972. It is the largest private employer in the world and the fourth largest utility or commercial employer, trailing the British National Health Service, and the Indian Railways. Wal-Mart is the largest grocery retailer in the United States, with an estimated 20% of the retail grocery and consumables business, as well as the largest toy seller in the U.S. It also owns and operates the North American company of Sam's Club.

July 2 Birthdays

* 419 - Valentinian III, Roman Emperor (d. 455)
* 1029 - Caliph Al-Mustansir of Cairo (d. 1094)
* 1262 - Arthur II, Duke of Brittany (d. 1312)
* 1489 - Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1556)
* 1492 - Elizabeth Tudor, English princess (d. 1495)
* 1647 - Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham, English privy councilor (d. 1730)
* 1665 - Samuel Penhallow, English-born American colonist and historian (d. 1726)
* 1667 - Pietro Ottoboni, Italian cardinal (d. 1740)
* 1714 - Christoph Willibald von Gluck, German composer (d. 1787)
* 1724 - Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, German poet (d. 1803)
* 1819 - Charles-Louis Hanon, French composer (d. 1900)
* 1820 - George Law Curry, Newspaper publisher and Governor of Oregon (d. 1878)
* 1821 - Charles Tupper, sixth Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1915)
* 1849 - Maria Theresia of Austria-Este, queen of Bavaria (d. 1919)
* 1862 - William Henry Bragg, English physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1942)
* 1865 - Lily Braun, German writer (d. 1916)
* 1876 - Wilhelm Cuno, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1933)
* 1877 - Hermann Hesse, German-born writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1962)
* 1881 - Royal H. Weller, American politician (d. 1929)
* 1884 - Alfons Maria Jakob, German neurologist (d. 1931)
* 1890 - Earl Roy Curry, religious thinker and Kirtland Temple overseer (d. 1980)
* 1893 - Ralph Hancock, Welsh garden designer (Rockefeller Center) (d. 1950)
* 1896 - Lydia Mei, Estonian artist (d. 1965)
* 1900 - Tyrone Guthrie, English actor (d. 1971)
* 1903 - Alec Douglas-Home, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1995)
* 1903 - King Olav V of Norway (d. 1991)
* 1904 - René Lacoste, French tennis player (d. 1996)
* 1906 - Hans Bethe, German-born nuclear physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2005)
* 1908 - Thurgood Marshall, American Supreme Court Justice (d. 1993)
* 1914 - Frederick Fennell, American conductor (d. 2004)
* 1914 - Mário Schenberg, Brazilian physicist (d. 1990)
* 1916 - Ken Curtis, American actor and singer (d. 1991)
* 1916 - Hans-Ulrich Rudel, Combat pilot and highest-decorated German soldier of WWII (d. 1982)
* 1917 - Murry Wilson, American musician and producer (The Beach Boys) (d. 1973)
* 1918 - Wibo, Dutch cartoonist (d. 2005)
* 1919 - Jean Craighead George, American writer
* 1923 - Wisława Szymborska, Polish writer, Nobel laureate
* 1925 - Medgar Evers, American civil rights activist (d. 1963)
* 1925 - Patrice Lumumba, Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (d. 1961)
* 1926 - Octavian Paler, Romanian writer, journalist, (d. 2007)
* 1927 - Brock Peters, American actor (d. 2005)
* 1927 - Gene Ray, Founder of the Time Cube website and proponent of Time Cube philosophy
* 1929 - Imelda Marcos, First Lady of the Philippines
* 1929 - John A. Cade, American politician
* 1930 - Carlos Menem, President of Argentina
* 1932 - Dave Thomas, American fast food entrepreneur (d. 2002)
* 1933 - Kenny Wharram, Canadian hockey player
* 1934 - Tom Springfield, British singer and songwriter (The Springfields)
* 1937 - Polly Holliday, American actress
* 1937 - Richard Petty, American race car driver
* 1939 - John H. Sununu, White House Chief of Staff under George HW Bush
* 1939 - Alexandros Panagoulis, Greek politician and poet
* 1939 - Paul Williams, American singer (The Temptations) (d. 1973)
* 1940 - Kenneth Harry Clarke, British politician
* 1941 - Stéphane Venne, French Canadian songwriter
* 1942 - Vicente Fox, Former Mexican president
* 1943 - Walter Godefroot, Belgian cyclist
* 1946 - Richard Axel, American scientist, Nobel laureate
* 1946 - Ron Silver, American actor
* 1947 - Larry David, American television producer
* 1948 - Saul Rubinek, Canadian film actor
* 1948 - Gene McFadden, American songwriter (d. 2006)
* 1949 - Roy Bittan, American musician (E Street Band)
* 1949 - Hanno Pöschl, Austrian actor
* 1949 - Robert Paquette, French Canadian singer and songwriter
* 1953 - Mark Hart, British musician (Crowded House and Supertramp)
* 1953 - Tony Armas, Venezuelan baseball player
* 1954 - Pete Briquette, Irish musician (Boomtown Rats)
* 1955 - Andrew Divoff, Venezuelan actor
* 1955 - Kevin Michael Grace, Canadian journalist
* 1956 - Jerry Hall, American actress
* 1957 - Bret "Hitman" Hart, Canadian wrestler
* 1958 - Thomas Bickerton, American Methodist bishop
* 1959 - Mike Hallett, English snooker player
* 1960 - Terry Rossio, American screenwriter
* 1961 - Michael Lindsay, Voice actor
* 1963 - Mark Kermode, British film critic
* 1964 - José Canseco, Cuban-born American baseball player
* 1964 - Ozzie Canseco, Cuban-born American baseball player
* 1964 - Joe Magrane, American baseball player
* 1964 - Charles Robinson, American wrestling referee
* 1969 - Matthew Cox, American convicted felon
* 1970 - Yancy Butler, American actress
* 1970 - Colin Edwin, Australian musician (Porcupine Tree)
* 1970 - Scotty 2 Hotty, American wrestler
* 1970 - Monie Love, English rapper
* 1970 - Steve Morrow, Irish footballer
* 1971 - Evelyn Lau, Canadian author
* 1971 - Troy Brown, American football player
* 1972 - Darren Shan, Irish children's author
* 1973 - Peter Kay, British comedian
* 1974 - Sean Casey, American baseball player
* 1974 - Moon So-ri, South Korean actress
* 1974 - Matthew Reilly, Australian author
* 1974 - Rocky Gray, American musician
* 1975 - Erik Ohlsson, Swedish guitarist (Millencolin)
* 1975 - Eric Daze, French Canadian ice hockey player
* 1976 - Krisztián Lisztes, Hungarian footballer
* 1976 - Tomáš Vokoun, Czech hockey player
* 1976 - Ivan Tomić,Croatian buissnesman
* 1978 - Jüri Ratas, Estonian politician
* 1979 - Diana Gurtskaya, Georgian singer
* 1979 - Sam Hornish, Jr., American race car driver
* 1979 - Joe Thornton, Canadian hockey player
* 1981 - Alex Koroknay-Palicz, American youth rights activist
* 1981 - Angel Pagán, Puerto Rican baseball player
* 1982 - Olivia Munn, American television hostess
* 1983 - Michelle Branch, American singer (The Wreckers)
* 1984 - Vanessa Lee Chester, American actress
* 1984 - Thomas Kortegaard, Danish footballer
* 1984 - Johnny Weir, American figure skater
* 1985 - Rhett Bomar, American football player
* 1985 - Chad Henne, American football player
* 1985 - Ashley Tisdale, American actress and singer
* 1986 - Lindsay Lohan, American actress and singer
* 1987 - Ruslana Korshunova, Kazakhstani model (d. 2008)
* 1992 - Stefan Roberts, British finance heir

Thursday, June 26, 2008

1976 - The CN Tower, the world's tallest free-standing structure on land, is opened.

, located in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is a communications and tourist tower standing 553.33 metres (1,815.39 ft) tall. It surpassed the height of the Ostankino Tower while still under construction in 1975, becoming the tallest free-standing structure on land in the world. On September 12, 2007, after holding the record for 31 years, the CN tower was surpassed in height by the still-under-construction Burj Dubai. It remains the tallest free-standing structure in the Americas and the signature icon of Toronto's skyline, attracting more than two million international visitors annually

1945 - The United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco.

The United Nations Charter is the treaty that forms and establishes the international organization called the United Nations. It was signed at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco, California, United States, on June 26, 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member countries (Poland, the other original member, which was not represented at the conference, signed it later). It entered into force on October 24, 1945, after being ratified by the five permanent members of the Security Council—the Republic of China (later replaced by the People's Republic of China), France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (later replaced by the Russian Federation), the United Kingdom, and the United States—and a majority of the other signatories.

Today's Birthdays

* 1575 - Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, queen of Denmark and Norway (d. 1612)
* 1681 - Hedwig Sophia, duchess of Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish writer (d. 1708)
* 1689 - Edward Holyoke, American academic (d. 1769)
* 1694 - Georg Brandt, Swedish chemist and mineralogist (d. 1768)
* 1702 - Philip Doddridge, English religious leader (d. 1751)
* 1703 - Thomas Clap, American academic (d. 1767)
* 1730 - Charles Messier, French Astronomer (d. 1817)
* 1817 - Branwell Bronte, British painter and poet (d. 1848)
* 1819 - Abner Doubleday, American Major General (d. 1893)
* 1824 - Lord Kelvin, Irish-born physicist (d. 1907)
* 1838 - Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Bengali Novelist (d. 1894)
* 1854 - Robert Laird Borden, Canadian politician (d. 1937)
* 1865 - Bernard Berenson, American art historian (d. 1959)
* 1866 - George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon, English financier of Egyptian excavations (d. 1923)
* 1869 - Martin Andersen Nexø, Danish writer (d. 1954)
* 1880 - Natalia, Princess Brassova (d. 1952)
* 1892 - Pearl S. Buck, American writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1973)
* 1895 - George Hainsworth, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1950)
* 1898 - Willy Messerschmitt, German aircraft designer (d. 1978)
* 1898 - Chesty Puller, the most decorated Marine in history (d. 1971)
* 1899 - Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (d. 1918)
* 1902 - Hugues Cuénod, Swiss Tenor
* 1904 - Frank Scott Hogg, Canadian astronomer (d. 1951)
* 1904 - Peter Lorre, Hungarian-born actor (d. 1964)
* 1906 - Alberto Rabagliati, Italian singer (d. 1974)
* 1906 - Viktor Schreckengost, American industrial designer (d. 2008)
* 1907 - Debs Garms, American baseball player (d. 1984)
* 1908 - Salvador Allende, Former President of Chile (1970-1973) (d. 1973)
* 1909 - Colonel Tom Parker, Elvis Presley's manager (d. 1997)
* 1911 - Babe Didrikson Zaharias, American athlete (d. 1956)
* 1913 - Aimé Césaire, French Martinican poet and politician (d. 2008)
* 1914 - Laurie Lee, British writer (d. 1997)
* 1915 - Paul Castellano, American mafia boss (d. 1985)
* 1915 - Charlotte Zolotow, American author
* 1919 - Richard Neustadt, American political historian (d. 2003)
* 1921 - Violette Szabo, French WWII secret agent (d. 1945)
* 1922 - Eleanor Parker, American actress
* 1923 - Barbara Graham, American murderer (d. 1955)
* 1924 - Costas Axelos, Greek philosopher
* 1925 - Pavel Belyayev, Soviet cosmonaut (d. 1970)
* 1928 - Jacob Druckman, American composer (d. 1996)
* 1928 - Yoshiro Nakamatsu, Japanese inventor
* 1929 - Milton Glaser, American Designer
* 1933 - Claudio Abbado, Italian conductor
* 1933 - Gene Green, American baseball player (d. 1981)
* 1934 - Jeremy Wolfenden, British journalist (d. 1965)
* 1934 - Dave Grusin, American jazz pianist
* 1936 - Robert Maclennan, British politician
* 1936 - Jean-Claude Cardinal Turcotte, Archbishop of Montreal
* 1937 - Sombat Metanee, Thai film actor
* 1937 - Robert Coleman Richardson, American physicist, Nobel laureate
* 1938 - Gerald North, American climatologist
* 1940 - Billy Davis, Jr., American singer (The Fifth Dimension)
* 1941 - Yves Beauchemin, Canadian novelist
* 1942 - Gilberto Gil, Brazilian singer and Minister of Culture
* 1943 - John Beasley, American actor
* 1943 - Georgie Fame, British singer
* 1945 - Malachi York, Nuwaubian leader
* 1951 - Gary Gilmour, Australian cricketer
* 1954 - Steve Barton, American actor (d. 2001)
* 1955 - Mick Jones, British guitarist (The Clash, Big Audio Dynamite)
* 1956 - Chris Isaak, American singer
* 1957 - Patty Smyth, American singer (Scandal)
* 1957 - Philippe Couillard, Quebec neurosurgeon and politician
* 1959 - Mark McKinney, Canadian actor
* 1960 - Zachary Breaux, American jazz guitarist
* 1961 - Greg LeMond, American cyclist
* 1961 - Terri Nunn, American singer (Berlin)
* 1961 - Manu Chao, French Musician
* 1963 - Mikhail B. Khodorkovsky, Russian businessman
* 1963 - Richard Garfield, American game designer
* 1967 - Todd Pletcher, American horse trainer
* 1968 - Paolo Maldini, Italian footballer
* 1968 - Shannon Sharpe, American football player
* 1969 - Colin Greenwood, British musician (Radiohead)
* 1969 - Mike Myers, American baseball player
* 1970 - Chris O'Donnell, American actor
* 1970 - Sean Hayes, American Actor
* 1970 - Irv Gotti, American record producer
* 1970 - Paul Thomas Anderson, American filmmaker
* 1970 - Nick Offerman, American actor
* 1971 - Max Biaggi, Italian motorcycle racer
* 1972 - Garou, Canadian singer
* 1972 - Jai Taurima, Australian long jumper
* 1973 - Gretchen Wilson, American singer
* 1973 - Paweł Małaszyński, Polish actor
* 1973 - Jussi Sydänmaa, Finnish musician (Lordi)
* 1974 - Matt Striker, American professional wrestler
* 1974 - Derek Jeter, American baseball player
* 1974 - Jeff Frankenstein, American musician (Newsboys)
* 1974 - Jason Kendall, American baseball player
* 1974 - Nicole Saba, Lebanese singer
* 1975 - Jonah Sorrentino, American hip hop artist
* 1975 - Terry Skiverton, English football player
* 1976 - Ed Jovanovski, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1976 - Chad Pennington, American football player
* 1976 - Joe Landon, American pornographic actor
* 1977 - Kubo Tite, Japanese cartoonist
* 1978 - Alexandra, French singer, L5's singer
* 1979 - Wálter Herrmann, Argentinian basketball player
* 1979 - Andy O'Brien, English footballer
* 1979 - Ryo Fukuda, Japanese racing driver
* 1980 - Jason Schwartzman, American actor
* 1980 - Michael Vick, American football player
* 1980 - Chris Shelton, American baseball player
* 1980 - Sinik, French singer and rapper
* 1984 - Elijah Dukes, American baseball player
* 1984 - Raymond Felton, American basketball player
* 1984 - Deron Williams, American basketball player
* 1984 - Jose Juan Barea, American basketball player
* 1985 - Urgyen Trinley Dorje, Tibetan spiritual leader
* 1986 - Casey Desmond, American singer
* 1987 - Carlos Iaconelli, Brazilian racing driver
* 1987 - Samir Nasri, French footballer, currently playing for Marseille
* 1992 - Jennette McCurdy, American actress
* 2005 - Princess Alexia of the Netherlands

Sunday, June 22, 2008

June 22 Birthdays

* 1680 - Ebenezer Erskine, Scottish religious dissenter (d. 1754)
* 1684 - Francesco Manfredini, Italian baroque composer (d. 1762)
* 1704 - John Taylor, English classical scholar (d. 1766)
* 1713 - Lord John Philip Sackville, English cricketer (d. 1765)
* 1738 - Jacques Delille, French poet and translator (d. 1813)
* 1757 - George Vancouver, British explorer (d. 1798)
* 1767 - Wilhelm von Humboldt, German philosopher and statesman (d. 1835)
* 1805 - Giuseppe Mazzini, Italian politician (d. 1872)
* 1837 - Paul Morphy, American chess master (d. 1884)
* 1845 - Tom Dula, American folk character (Tom Dooley) (d. 1868)
* 1856 - H. Rider Haggard, English author (d. 1925)
* 1861 - Maximilian von Spee, German admiral (d. 1914)
* 1864 - Hermann Minkowski, German mathematician (d. 1909)
* 1871 - William McDougall, British psychologist and polymath (d. 1938)
* 1879 - Thibaudeau Rinfret, jurist and Chief Justice of Canada (d. 1962)
* 1884 - James Rector, American athlete (d. 1949)
* 1885 - Milan Vidmar, Slovenian engineer and chess player (d. 1962)
* 1887 - Julian Huxley, British biologist (d. 1975)
* 1888 - Harold Burton, U.S. Supreme Court justice (d. 1964)
* 1892 - Robert Ritter von Greim, German field marshal (d. 1945)
* 1897 - Edmund A. Chester, American broadcaster and journalist (d. 1973)
* 1897 - Norbert Elias, German sociologist (d. 1990)
* 1898 - Erich Maria Remarque, German writer (d. 1970)
* 1899 - Michał Kalecki, Polish economist (d. 1970)
* 1902 - Marguerite De La Motte, American actress (d. 1950)
* 1903 - Carl Hubbell, baseball player (d. 1988)
* 1903 - John Dillinger, American bank robber (d. 1934)
* 1906 - Anne Morrow Lindbergh, American author and pilot (d. 2001)
* 1906 - Billy Wilder, Austrian-born director (d. 2002)
* 1907 - Mike Todd, American film producer (d. 1958)
* 1909 - Maurice Adler, American film producer (d. 1960)
* 1910 - Peter Pears, English tenor (d. 1986)
* 1910 - Konrad Zuse, German engineer and computer pioneer (d. 1995)
* 1912 - Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1983)
* 1916 - Johnny Jacobs, American television announcer (d. 1982)
* 1919 - Gower Champion, American dancer and choreographer (d. 1980)
* 1920 - Paul Frees, American voice actor (d. 1986)
* 1921 - Joseph Papp, American director and producer (d. 1991)
* 1922 - Bill Blass, American fashion designer (d. 2002)
* 1922 - Geza Vermes, Hungarian author and scholar of religious history and the Dead Sea Scrolls
* 1922 - Mona Lisa, Filipino actress
* 1927 - Ann Petersen, Belgian actress (d. 2003)
* 1930 - Yuri Artyukhin, cosmonaut (d. 1998)
* 1932 - Amrish Puri, Indian actor (d. 2005)
* 1932 - Prunella Scales, English actress
* 1933 - Dianne Feinstein, American politician
* 1933 - Jacques Martin, French TV host (d. 2007)
* 1933 - Libor Pešek, Czech conductor
* 1936 - Kris Kristofferson, American singer/songwriter and actor
* 1936 - Hermeto Pascoal, Brazilian musician
* 1939 - Don Matthews, American football coach in the CFL
* 1940 - Esther Rantzen, British TV presenter
* 1940 - Abbas Kiarostami, Iranian filmmaker/poet
* 1941 - Ed Bradley, American journalist (d. 2006)
* 1941 - Michael Lerner, American actor
* 1943 - Brit Hume, American news anchor and commentator
* 1943 - Eumir Deodato, Brazilian artist, producer and arranger
* 1944 - Klaus Maria Brandauer, Austrian actor
* 1944 - Peter Asher, British singer, guitarist and producer (Peter & Gordon)
* 1946 - Eliades Ochoa, Cuban guitarist (Buena Vista Social Club)
* 1947 - Octavia Butler, American author (d. 2006)
* 1947 - Jerry Rawlings, former President of Ghana
* 1947 - David Lander, American actor and baseball scout
* 1947 - Howard Kaylan, founding member of The Turtles
* 1947 - Pete Maravich, American basketball player (d. 1988)
* 1948 - Todd Rundgren, American songwriter and record producer
* 1949 - Meryl Streep, American actress
* 1949 - Lindsay Wagner, American actress
* 1949 - Alan Osmond, American singer
* 1952 - Graham Greene, Canadian actor
* 1953 - Cyndi Lauper, American singer
* 1953 - Bruce McAvaney, Australian sports broadcaster
* 1954 - Freddie Prinze, American actor and comedian (d. 1977)
* 1956 - Tim Russ, American actor
* 1956 - Shah Mehmood Qureshi, Pakistani Politician and Foreign Minister
* 1955 - Green Gartside, Welsh singer songwriter
* 1957 - Garry Gary Beers, Australian bassist from group INXS
* 1957 - Danny Baker, English comedy writer and radio presenter
* 1958 - Bruce Campbell, American actor
* 1959 - Wayne Federman, American comedian
* 1959 - Nicola Sirkis, French singer and lyricist (Indochine)
* 1959 - Mike O'Meara, co-host of Don and Mike Show
* 1960 - Erin Brockovich-Ellis
* 1961 - Stephen Batchelor
* 1961 - Jimmy Sommerville, Scottish singer (Bronski Beat, Communards)
* 1962 - Clyde Drexler, former American NBA player
* 1962 - Stephen Chow, Hong Kong actor and director
* 1962 - Bobby Gillespie, Scottish musician (Primal Scream)
* 1963 - Randy Couture, American mixed martial artist
* 1963 - John Tenta, Canadian professional wrestler (d. 2006)
* 1964 - Dan Brown, American author
* 1965 - Ľubomír Moravčík, Slovakian footballer
* 1966 - Michael Park, WRC co-pilot (d. 2005)
* 1966 - Emmanuelle Seigner, French actress
* 1968 - Darrell Armstrong, American basketball player
* 1970 - Steven Page, Canadian singer (Barenaked Ladies)
* 1970 - Michel Elefteriades, Greek-Lebanese politician, artist, producer and businessman
* 1971 - Mary Lynn Rajskub, American actress
* 1971 - Kurt Warner, American football player
* 1973 - Carson Daly, American television personality
* 1974 - Donald Faison, American actor
* 1974 - Joseph Vijay, Indian actor
* 1975 - Andreas Klöden, German professional road bicycle racer
* 1975 - Laila Rouass, Moroccan-Indian actress
* 1976 - Gordon Moakes, English musician (Bloc Party)
* 1978 - Champ Bailey, American football player
* 1978 - Jai Rodriguez, American TV personality
* 1978 - Dan Wheldon, British race car driver
* 1979 - Joey Cheek, American speed skater
* 1979 - Thomas Voeckler, French road bicycle racer
* 1979 - Brad Hawpe, American baseball player
* 1981 - Chris Urbanowicz, guitarist of British rock band Editors
* 1982 - Soraia Chaves, Portuguese actress and model
* 1982 - Ian Kinsler, American baseball player
* 1984 - Jerome Taylor, West Indies international cricketer
* 1984 - Janko Tipsarević, Serbian tennis player
* 1985 - Rosa Kato, Italian-Japanese model and actress
* 1985 - Sofoklis Schortsanitis, Greek-Cameroonian basketball player
* 1986 - Ramin Ott, American Samoan football player
* 1988 - Kieran Lee, English football player

1848 - Beginning of the June Days Uprising in Paris.

The June Days Uprising (French: les journées de Juin) refers to the French workers' revolt from June 23 to June 25, 1848, after the closure of the National Workshops created by the Second Republic to give work to the unemployed. The repression, led by general Cavaignac, killed 1,500, while 15,000 prisoners were deported to Algeria. Cavaignac was then named head of the executive power while Louis Blanc was judicially persecuted by the government. This marked the end of the hopes of a "Democratic and Social Republic" (République démocratique et sociale) and the victory of the liberals over the Radical Republicans.

Friday, June 6, 2008

1889- The Great Seattle Fire

The Great Seattle Fire was a fire that destroyed the entire central business district of Seattle, Washington, on June 6, 1889. At approximately 2:30 pm on June 6, 1889, an accidentally overturned glue pot in the carpentry shop of John Bachs started the most destructive fire in the history of Seattle.

1925 1925 - The Chrysler Corporation is founded by Walter Percy Chrysler.

Chrysler LLC is an American automobile manufacturer that has been producing automobiles since 1925 and from 1914 under the Dodge name. From 1998 to 2007, Chrysler and its subsidiaries were part of the German based DaimlerChrysler (now Daimler AG). Prior to 1998, Chrysler Corporation traded under the "C" symbol on the NYSE. Under DaimlerChrysler, the company was named "DaimlerChrysler Motors Company LLC", with its U.S. operations generally referred to as the "Chrysler Group".

On May 14, 2007 DaimlerChrysler AG announced the sale of 80.1% of Chrysler Group to American private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management, L.P., although Daimler continues to hold a 19.9% stake. It is then that the company gained its current name. The deal was finalized on August 3, 2007.

1944 D-Day, code named Operation Overlord commences

1944 - World War II: Battle of Normandy begins. D-Day, code named Operation Overlord, commences with the landing of 155,000 Allied troops on the beaches of Normandy in France. The allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland in the largest amphibious military operation in history. Allied land forces that saw combat in Normandy on June 6 came from Canada, Free French Forces, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In the weeks following the invasion, Polish forces also participated and there were also contingents from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, and the Netherlands. Most of the above countries also provided air and naval support, as did the Royal Australian Air Force, Royal New Zealand Air Force and the Royal Norwegian Navy.

The Normandy invasion began with overnight parachute and glider landings, massive air attacks, naval bombardments, an early morning amphibious landing and during the evening the remaining elements of the parachute divisions landed. The "D-Day" forces deployed from bases along the south coast of England, the most important of these being Portsmouth.

June 6 Birthdays

* 1236 - Wen Tianxiang, Chinese prime minister (d. 1283)
* 1436 - Regiomontanus, German mathematician (d. 1476)
* 1502 - King John III of Portugal (d. 1557)
* 1519 - Andrea Cesalpino, Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist (d. 1603)
* 1542 - Richard Grenville, English soldier and explorer (d. 1591)
* 1576 - Giovanni Diodati, Swiss Protestant clergyman (d. 1649)
* 1580 - Godefroy Wendelin, Flemish astronomer (d. 1667)
* 1599 - Diego Velázquez, Spanish painter (d. 1660)
* 1606 - Pierre Corneille, French dramatist (d. 1684)
* 1622 - Claude-Jean Allouez, French Jesuit missionary and explorer (d.1857)
* 1714 - King Joseph I of Portugal (d. 1777)
* 1755 - Nathan Hale, American writer and patriot (d. 1776)
* 1756 - John Trumbull, American painter (d. 1843)
* 1772 - Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies, Holy Roman Empire Empress consort (d. 1807)
* 1799 - Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet (d. 1837)
* 1810 - Friedrich Wilhelm Schneidewin, German classical scholar (d. 1856)
* 1829 - Shusaku Honinbo, Japanese Go player (d. 1862)
* 1841 - Eliza Orzeszkowa, Polish novelist (d.1910)
* 1844 - Konstantin Savitsky, Russian painter (d. 1905)
* 1850 - Karl Ferdinand Braun, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1918)
* 1857 - Aleksandr Lyapunov, Russian mathematician (d. 1918)
* 1862 - Henry John Newbolt, English author (d. 1938)
* 1867 - David Abercrombie, Abercrombie & Fitch founder (d. 1931)
* 1868 - Robert Falcon Scott, English explorer (d. 1912)
* 1872 - Tsarina Alexandra of Russia (d. 1918)
* 1875 - Thomas Mann, German writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955)
* 1890 - Ted Lewis, American bandleader (d. 1971)
* 1892 - Donald F. Duncan Sr., American entrepreneur (d. 1971)
* 1896 - Henry Allingham, English first world war veteran
* 1898 - Ninette de Valois, Irish dancer (d. 2001)
* 1898 - Walter Abel, American actor (d. 1987)
* 1900 - Manfred Sakel, Polish psychiatrist (d. 1957)
* 1901 - Sukarno, first President of Indonesia (d. 1970)
* 1902 - Jimmie Lunceford, American bandleader (d. 1947)
* 1903 - Aram Khachaturian, Armenian composer (d. 1978)
* 1906 - Max August Zorn, German-born mathematician (d. 1993)
* 1907 - Bill Dickey, American baseball player (d. 1993)
* 1913 - Carlo L. Golino, American scholar (d. 1991)
* 1915 - Vincent Persichetti, American composer (d. 1987)
* 1916 - Henriette Roosenburg, Dutch journalist (d. 1972)
* 1917 - Kirk Kerkorian, American businessman
* 1918 - Edwin G. Krebs, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
* 1923 - V. C. Andrews, American author (d. 1986)
* 1924 - Jinyong, Chinese novelist
* 1926 - Klaus Tennstedt, German conductor (d. 1998)
* 1929 - Sunil Dutt, Indian actor and politician (d. 2005)
* 1932 - David Scott, American astronaut
* 1933 - Heinrich Rohrer, Swiss physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
* 1934 - King Albert II of Belgium
* 1934 - Roy Innis, American civil rights activist
* 1936 - Levi Stubbs, American musician (The Four Tops)
* 1936 - A. Venkatesh Naik, Indian politician
* 1938 - Prince Luís of Orléans-Braganza, pretender to the Brazilian throne
* 1939 - Louis Andriessen, Dutch composer
* 1939 - Gary U.S. Bonds, American musician
* 1939 - Ed Giacomin, hockey player
* 1940 - Larry Lujack, American disc jockey
* 1941 - Alexander Cockburn, Scottish-born American journalist
* 1943 - Ken Hatfield, former N.C.A.A. Football Head Coach
* 1943 - Richard Smalley, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
* 1944 - David Penhaligon, British politician
* 1944 - Phillip Allen Sharp, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
* 1945 - David E. Bonior, American politician
* 1945 - David Dukes, American actor (d. 2000)
* 1947 - David Blunkett, English politician
* 1947 - Ada Kok, Dutch swimmer
* 1948 - Tony Levin, American bassist (King Crimson)
* 1948 - Richard Sinclair, English musician (Caravan)
* 1949 - Robert Englund, American actor
* 1949 - Holly Near, American folksinger
* 1950 - Chantal Akerman, Belgian film director
* 1951 - Noritake Takahara, Japanese racing driver
* 1952 - Yukihiro Takahashi, Japanese musician and singer (Yellow Magic Orchestra)
* 1952 - Harvey Fierstein, American actor
* 1952 - Jean Hamel, Canadian ice hockey player
* 1953 - Dimitris Avramopoulos, Greek politician
* 1954 - Cynthia Rylant, American author
* 1955 - Sandra Bernhard, American actress and comedian
* 1956 - Björn Borg, Swedish tennis player
* 1956 - Bubbi Morthens, Icelandic singer and songwriter
* 1957 - Mike Gatting, English cricketer
* 1959 - Jimmy Jam, American record producer
* 1959 - Colin Quinn, American comedian
* 1959 - David Schultz, American wrestler (d. 1996)
* 1959 - Georgios Voulgarakis, Greek politician
* 1960 - Gary Graham, American actor
* 1960 - Steve Vai, American musician
* 1960 - Jozef Pribilinec, Slovak athlete
* 1961 - Bill Bates, American football player
* 1961 - Tom Araya, Chilean musician (Slayer)
* 1961 - Nir Brand, Israeli composer
* 1961 - Aldo Costa, Italian engineer
* 1963 - Wolfgang Drechsler, German social scientist
* 1963 - Jason Isaacs, English actor
* 1965 - Cam Neely, Canadian hockey player
* 1966 - Tony Yeboah, Ghanaian footballer
* 1966 - Sean Yseult, American musician (White Zombie)
* 1967 - Paul Giamatti, American actor
* 1968 - François Avard, Canadian writer and scenarist
* 1968 - Alan Licht, American guitarist, composer and journalist
* 1970 - Eugeni Berzin, Russian cyclist
* 1970 - Anthony Norris, American professional wrestler
* 1970 - James Shaffer, American rock musician (Korn)
* 1970 - Sarah Dessen, American author
* 1972 - Cristina Scabbia, Italian singer (Lacuna Coil)
* 1973 - Kat Swift, US Presidential Candidate (Green Party)
* 1974 - Danny Strong, American actor
* 1975 - Cheer Chen, Taiwanese singer and musician
* 1975 - Nina Kaczorowski, American actress
* 1975 - Staci Keanan, American actress
* 1975 - Niklas Sundström, hockey player
* 1976 - aKido, Canadian musician
* 1976 - Ross Noble, British comedian
* 1976 - Geoff Rowley, British skateboarder
* 1977 - David Connolly, Irish footballer
* 1978 - Carl Barât, English musician (The Libertines and Dirty Pretty Things)
* 1978 - Judith Barsi, American actress (d. 1988)
* 1978 - Mariana Popova, Bulgarian singer
* 1980 - Matt Belisle, American baseball player
* 1980 - Martin Devaney, English footballer
* 1983 - Gemma Bissix, British actress
* 1983 - Gianna Michaels, American porn actress
* 1984 - Noor Sabri, Iraqi footballplayer
* 1984 - Shannon Stewart, American model
* 1985 - Drew Galloway, Scottish professional wrestler
* 1987 - Kyle Falconer, Scottish musician
* 1987 - Daniel Logan, New Zealand actor

Wednesday, June 4, 2008

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests, were a series of demonstrations led by labor activists, students, and intellectuals in the People's Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. While the protests lacked a unified cause or leadership, participants were generally against the authoritarianism and economic policies of the ruling Chinese Communist Party and voiced calls for democratic reform within the structure of the government. The demonstrations centered on Tiananmen Square in Beijing, but large-scale protests also occurred in cities throughout China, including Shanghai, which stayed peaceful throughout the protests. In Beijing, the resulting military crackdown on the protesters by the PRC government left many civilians dead or injured. The reported tolls ranged from 200–300 (PRC government figures), to 300–800 (The New York Times), and to 2,000–3,000 (Chinese student associations and Chinese Red Cross).

Following the violence, the government conducted widespread arrests to suppress protesters and their supporters, cracked down on other protests around China, banned the foreign press from the country and strictly controlled coverage of the events in the PRC press. Members of the Party who had publicly sympathized with the protesters were purged, with several high-ranking members placed under house arrest, such as General Secretary Zhao Ziyang. The violent suppression of the Tiananmen Square protest caused widespread international condemnation of the PRC government

1584 Roanoke Colony Founded

Roanoke Island was the site of the 16th century Roanoke Colony, the first English colony in the New World in what was then called Virginia, in honor of England's ruling monarch, Queen Elizabeth I. There were two major groups of settlers who attempted to establish a permanent settlement at Roanoke Island, and each failed.

The first attempt to establish the Roanoke Colony was run by Ralph Lane after Sir Richard Grenville, who had transported the colonists to Virginia, returned to England for supplies as planned. Unfortunately for the colonists, who were desperately in need of supplies, Grenville's return was delayed. As a result, when Sir Francis Drake put in at Roanoke after attacking the Spanish colony of St. Augustine, the entire population of the colony returned with Drake to England.

In 1587, the English again attempted to settle. John White, father of one of the colonists, and grandfather to the first English child born in the New World, Virginia Dare, left the colony to return to England for supplies that he felt would help the colonists to survive, expecting to return to Roanoke Island within three months. Instead, he found England at war with Spain, and all ships were confiscated for use of the war efforts. His return to Roanoke Island was delayed until 1590. When he finally returned, the colonists had disappeared. The only thing he found was the word "CROATOAN" carved into a nearby tree. Before leaving the colony for England three years earlier, White left instructions with the colonists that if they were forced to abandon their settlement on Roanoke, that they were to carve out a cross on a tree upon the island.

"CROATOAN" was the name of an island to the south (modern-day Hatteras Island), where a friendly native tribe were known to live, and it was thus reasonable to assume that the colonists had left the Roanoke settlement bound for that island. However, foul weather would keep White from venturing south to search on Croatoan for the colonists, and they returned to England. White would never return to the New World. The fate of the colony has never been authoritatively ascertained, and consequently it became known as "The Lost Colony".

Tuesday, June 3, 2008

1968 Valerie Solanas shoots Andy Warhol

Valerie Jean Solanas (April 9, 1936 – April 26, 1988) was an American radical feminist writer best known for shooting the artist Andy Warhol in 1968. She wrote the SCUM Manifesto, an essay on patriarchal culture advocating the creation of an all-female society.

1940 The Battle of Dunkirk

The Battle of Dunkirk was the defense and evacuation of the British and Allied forces that had been separated from the main body of the French defenses by the German advance.

After the seven months of the Phoney War, the Battle of France began in earnest on 10 May 1940. To the east, the German Army Group B invaded and subdued the Netherlands and advanced westwards through Belgium. On the 14 May, Army Group A burst through the Ardennes region and advanced rapidly to the west toward Sedan, then turned northwards to the English Channel, in what Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein called the "sickle cut" (known as the Manstein Plan).

A series of Allied counter-attacks, including the Battle of Arras, failed to sever the German spearhead, which reached the coast on 20 May, separating the British Expeditionary Force near Armentières, the French First Army, and the Belgian army further to the north from the majority of French troops south of the German penetration. After reaching the Channel, the Germans swung north along the coast, threatening to capture the ports and trap the British and French forces before they could evacuate to Britain.

1937 The Duke of Windsor marries Wallis Simpson

Wallis, Duchess of Windsor (previously Wallis Simpson; previously Wallis Spencer; born Bessie Wallis Warfield; 19 June 1895 or 1896 – 24 April 1986) was the American wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor.

During her second marriage, she allegedly became the mistress of Edward, Prince of Wales in 1934. Two years later, after Edward's accession as King, he proposed marriage. The King's desire to marry a twice-divorced American with two living ex-husbands and a reputation as an opportunist caused a constitutional crisis in the United Kingdom and the Dominions, which ultimately led to the King's abdication in December 1936 to marry "the woman I love"

1888 Casey at the Bat first published

"Casey at the Bat", subtitled "A Ballad of the Republic Sung in the Year 1888", is a baseball poem written in 1888 by Ernest Thayer. First published in the San Francisco Examiner on June 3, 1888, it was later popularized by DeWolf Hopper in many vaudeville performances.

In the poem, a baseball team from the fictional town of Mudville is losing by two runs with two outs in their last at bats, but they think they can win "if only" they could somehow get "mighty Casey" up to bat. Two weak hitters manage to get on base, and Casey comes to bat with the tying run in scoring position. The beloved Casey, Mudville's star player, is so confident in his abilities that he doesn't swing at the first two pitches, both strikes. On the last pitch, the overconfident Casey strikes out, ending the game and sending the crowd home unhappy.

The poem is filled with references to baseball as it was in 1888, which in many ways is not far removed from today's version. As a work, the poem encapsulates much of the appeal of baseball, including the involvement of the crowd. It also has a fair amount of baseball jargon that can pose challenges for translators.

1864 The Battle of Cold Harbor

The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 1864 Overland Campaign during the American Civil War, is remembered as one of American history's bloodiest, most lopsided battles. Thousands of Union soldiers were slaughtered in a hopeless frontal assault against the fortified troops of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. Grant said of the battle in his memoirs "I have always regretted that the last assault at Cold Harbor was ever made. I might say the same thing of the assault of the 22d of May, 1863, at Vicksburg. At Cold Harbor no advantage whatever was gained to compensate for the heavy loss we sustained."

1098 The Siege of Antioch ends

The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. The first siege, by the crusaders against the Muslim city, lasted from October 21, 1097, to June 2, 1098. The second siege, against the crusaders who had occupied it, lasted from June 7 to June 28, 1098.

Monday, June 2, 2008

KenJennings begins Jeopardy Run

Kenneth Wayne Jennings III (born May 23, 1974) holds the record for the longest winning streak on the U.S. syndicated game show Jeopardy! Jennings won 74 games before he was defeated by challenger Nancy Zerg on his 75th appearance. His total earnings on Jeopardy! are US $3,022,700 ($2,520,700 in winnings, a $2,000 2nd-place prize in his 75th appearance, and $500,000 in the Jeopardy! Ultimate Tournament of Champions). Jennings held the record for most winnings on any game show ever until the end of the Ultimate Tournament of Champions (first aired on May 25, 2005), when he was displaced by Brad Rutter, who defeated Jennings in that tournament.

1886 Grover Cleveland marries Frances Folsom

Frances Cornelia Folsom Cleveland-Preston (July 21, 1864 – October 29, 1947), wife of the President of the United States, Grover Cleveland, and First Lady of the United States from 1886 to 1889, and again from 1893 to 1897. the wedding took place on June 2, 1886, making them the first and only first couple to be wed in the executive mansion. At age 21, she was the youngest American First Lady.

1855 The Portland Rum Riot

The Portland Rum Riot, also called the Maine Law Riot, was a brief but violent period of civil unrest that occurred in Portland, Maine on 2 June 1855. The underlying stimulus of the riot was anger over the Maine law of 1851 which outlawed the manufacture and sale of alcohol in the state, except for medicinal and mechanical purposes.

Rumors began to spread that Portland Mayor Neal S. Dow, (1804-1897), also known as the "Napoleon of Temperance" an outspoken prohibitionist, was keeping a large supply of alcohol in the city. It is true that Dow had authorized a shipment of $1,600 worth of "medicinal and mechanical alcohol" that was being stored in the city for distribution to pharmacists and doctors (as was authorized under the Maine law) but this detail was not widely reported.

1763 Pontiac's Rebellion

Fort Michilimackinac (present Mackinaw City, Michigan), was the largest fort taken by surprise. On June 2, 1763, local Ojibwas staged a game of stickball (a forerunner of lacrosse) with visiting Sauks. The soldiers watched the game, as they had done on previous occasions. The ball was hit through the open gate of the fort; the teams rushed in and were then handed weapons which had been smuggled into the fort by Indian women. About fifteen men of the 35 man garrison were killed in the struggle; five more were later tortured to death.

Friday, May 16, 2008

1770 - 14-year old Marie Antoinette marries 15-year-old Louis-Auguste

Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen (November 2, 1755 – October 16, 1793), known to history as Marie Antoinette , was born an Archduchess of Austria and later became Queen of France and Navarre. At fourteen, she was married to Louis-Auguste, Dauphin of France, the future Louis XVI. She was the mother of Louis XVII, who died in the Temple Tower at the age of ten during the French Revolution. Marie Antoinette is perhaps best remembered for her legendary (and, some modern historians say, exaggerated) excesses and for her death: she was executed by guillotine at the height of the French Revolution in 1793 for the crime of treason.

1771 The Battle of Alamance

The Battle of Alamance ended the so-called War of the Regulation, a rebellion in colonial North Carolina over issues of taxation and local control. Some historians consider it the opening salvo of the American Revolution, although the rebellion was against local government, and not against the king or crown. Named for nearby Great Alamance Creek, the battle took place in the central Piedmont about eight miles south of present-day Burlington.

1777 Lachlan McIntosh and Button Gwinnett shoot each other during a duel near Savannah, Georgia.

Button Gwinnett (baptized: April 10, 1735 – May 19, 1777), was second of the signatories (first signature on the left) on the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia. He was also briefly the provisional president of Georgia in 1777, and Gwinnett County (now a major suburb of metro Atlanta) was named after him.

A fairly obscure historical figure, Gwinnett nonetheless does hold one claim to fame: his autograph is among the most valuable in the world, a fact used to good effect by science fiction author Isaac Asimov in his short story "Button, Button." Valuations usually suggest an example of an original Gwinnett signature would be valued only behind the likes of Julius Caesar and William Shakespeare, making Gwinnett’s by far the most valuable American autograph. Single examples of Gwinnett’s autograph have been sold for as much as $150,000. Its extraordinarily high value is a result of a combination of the desire by many top collectors to acquire a complete set of autographs by all 56 signers of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, and the extreme rarity of the Gwinnett signature (there are less than 30 known extant examples, since Gwinnett was fairly obscure prior to signing the Declaration and died shortly afterwards). In the 1920s, five copies of his signature were owned by renowned rare bookseller A.S.W. Rosenbach.

1811 The Battle of Albuera

The Battle of Albuera (16 May 1811) was an indecisive battle during the Peninsular War. A mixed British, Spanish, and Portuguese corps engaged elements of the French Armée du Midi (Army of the South) at the small Spanish village of Albuera, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the frontier fortress-town of Badajoz, Spain.

From October 1810 Marshal Masséna's Army of Portugal had been tied down in an increasingly hopeless stand-off against Wellington's Allied forces, safely entrenched in and behind the Lines of Torres Vedras. Acting on Napoleon's orders, in early 1811 Marshal Soult led a French expedition from Andalusia into Extremadura in a bid to draw Allied forces away from the Lines and ease Masséna's plight. Napoleon's information was outdated and Soult's intervention came too late; starving and understrength, Masséna's army was already withdrawing to Spain. Soult was able to capture the fortress at Badajoz from the Spanish, but was forced to return to Andalusia following Marshal Victor's defeat in March at the Battle of Barrosa. However, Soult left Badajoz strongly garrisoned. In April, following news of Masséna's complete withdrawal from Portugal, Wellington sent a powerful Anglo-Portuguese corps commanded by Sir William Beresford to retake the border town. The Allies drove most of the French from the surrounding area, and laid siege to the remainder in Badajoz.

1836 Edgar Allan Poe marries his 13-year-old cousin Virginia.

Virginia Eliza Clemm Poe (born Virginia Eliza Clemm) (August 22, 1822 – January 30, 1847), was the wife of Edgar Allan Poe. The couple were first cousins and married when Virginia was only 13 and Poe was 27. Some biographers have suggested that the couple's relationship was more like that between brother and sister, and that they never consummated their marriage. Virginia struggled with tuberculosis from January 1842, and died of it in January 1847 at age 24.

Along with other family members, Poe and Virginia lived together off and on for several years before their marriage. The couple often moved to accommodate Poe's employment, living intermittently in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York. A few years after their wedding, Poe was involved in a substantial scandal involving Frances Sargent Osgood and Elizabeth F. Ellet. These rumors about alleged amorous improprieties on her husband's part affected Virginia so much that on her deathbed she claimed that Ellet had murdered her.

1866 - Charles Elmer Hires invents root beer.

Charles Elmer Hires (August 19, 1851–July 31, 1937) was an early promoter of commercially prepared root beer. He was a pharmacist from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who formulated the eponymous Hires Root Beer beverage on May 16, 1866.

At the age of 12 he worked as a drugstore boy. When he was 16 he moved to Philadelphia and worked in a pharmacy, saving his money until he had nearly $400. Using this money he started his own drugstore.

Some say Hires discovered root beer on his honeymoon in New Jersey where the woman who ran his honeymoon hotel served root tea. Hires was originally going to call his drink "root tea" also but thought that "root beer" would be more appealing to the working class. Originally, Hires packaged the mixture in boxes and sold it to housewives and soda fountains. They needed to mix in water, sugar, and yeast.

The drink was slow to catch on, but the Reverend Dr. Russell Conwell persuaded Hires to present his product at the 1876 U.S. Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. To make it stand out, he called his drink "The Temperance Drink" and "the greatest health giving beverage in the world". Hires was active in the temperance movement, and it is believed that he wanted root beer to be an alternative to alcohol.

1929 - In Hollywood, California, the first Academy Awards

The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held on Thursday, May 16, 1929, at the Hotel Roosevelt in Hollywood to honor outstanding film achievements of 1927 and 1928. It was hosted by actor Douglas Fairbanks and director William C. DeMille. The 80th Academy Awards ceremonies, hosted by Comedy Central's The Daily Show host, Jon Stewart, were held on Sunday, February 24, 2008, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California.

1960 - Theodore Maiman operates the first optical laser, at Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, California.

Theodore Harold "Ted" Maiman (July 11, 1927 - May 5, 2007) was an American physicist who made the first working laser. Maiman received the Japan Prize in 1987. He was the author of a book titled The Laser Odyssey. Due to his work on the laser, he was twice nominated for a Nobel Prize and was given membership in both the National Academies of Science and Engineering. He received the Oliver E. Buckley Prize in 1966. He was the recipient of the 1983/84 Wolf Prize in Physics, and was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame that same year.

Maiman died from systemic mastocytosis on May 5, 2007 in Vancouver, Canada, where he lived with his wife.

1965 - The Campbell Soup Company introduces SpaghettiOs under its Franco-American brand.

SpaghettiOs are a brand of canned spaghetti that consists of small, circular pasta shapes, suspended in cheese and tomato sauce. Besides the "plain" (pasta and sauce only) version, other varieties of SpaghettiOs include miniature meatballs or "franks" (processed meat that resemble slices of hot dogs). They also offer "themed" pasta shapes, often of cartoon characters, and Raviolios, which are round ravioli filled with beef. SpaghettiOs with meatballs are probably the most well-known variety of the brand, the one most often featured in advertisements. SpaghettiOs are marketed primarily to children and feature the "Uh-oh! SpaghettiOs!" jingle.

Thursday, May 15, 2008

1972 Arthur Bremer shot George Wallace

Arthur Herman Bremer (born August 21, 1950), the son of a Milwaukee truck driver, shot U.S. Democratic presidential candidate George Corley Wallace on May 15, 1972 in Laurel, Maryland, leaving him paralyzed for life. He was sentenced to 63 years (53 years after an appeal) in a Maryland prison for the shooting of Wallace and three bystanders.

After 35 years of incarceration, Bremer was released from prison on parole on November 9, 2007.

1941 Joe Dimaggio begins 56 game hitting streak

Joseph Paul DiMaggio, born Giuseppe Paolo DiMaggio, Jr. (November 25, 1914 – March 8, 1999), nicknamed Joltin' Joe and The Yankee Clipper, was a baseball player who played his entire Major League career (1936–1951) for the New York Yankees. He was the brother of Vince DiMaggio and Dom DiMaggio. He was born in Martinez, California, and moved to San Francisco at one year old. He was married to Marilyn Monroe, who posed nude in Playboy.

1940 McDonalds Opens its first restaurant

The business began in 1940, with a restaurant opened by siblings Dick and Mac McDonald in San Bernardino, California. Their introduction of the "Speedee Service System" in 1948 established the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant. The present corporation dates its founding to the opening of a franchised restaurant by Ray Kroc, in Des Plaines, Illinois on April 15, 1955, the ninth McDonald's restaurant overall. Kroc later purchased the McDonald brothers' equity in the company and led its worldwide expansion.

With the successful expansion of McDonald's into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life. Its prominence has also made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics and consumer responsibility.

1919 The Winnipeg General Strike Ends

The Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 was one of the most influential strikes in Canadian history. J. S. Woodsworth, a strike leader who was briefly imprisoned, went on to found the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, which was the forerunner of the New Democratic Party.

After World War I many Canadian soldiers returned home to find few opportunities, though many companies had enjoyed enormous profits on war contracts. Wages and working conditions were dismal and labour regulations were mostly non-existent. The Bolshevik revolution had just occurred in Russia, and some workers saw this as an example of a successful socialist revolution.

1905 Las Vegas Established

Las Vegas is the most populous city in the state of Nevada, the seat of Clark County, and an internationally renowned major resort city for gambling, shopping, and entertainment. Las Vegas, billed as The Entertainment Capital of the World, is famous for massive and lavish casino resorts, the unrestricted availability of alcoholic beverages (as is true throughout Nevada), and adult entertainment. Once officially referred to as Sin City, this image has made Las Vegas a popular setting for films and television programs.

Although established in 1905, Las Vegas officially became a city in 1911. With the growth that followed, at the close of the century Las Vegas became the most populous American city founded in the 20th century (a distinction held by Chicago in the 19th century). As the 28th most populous city in the United States, Las Vegas is one of the most populous cities in the American West.

The name Las Vegas is often applied to the unincorporated areas of Clark County that surround the city, especially the resort areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip. This 4.5-mile (7.2-km) stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard is mostly outside the city limits, in the unincorporated towns of Paradise and Winchester.

1869 The National Woman Suffrage Association founded

The National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) was formed on May 15, 1869 in New York in response to a split in the American Equal Rights Association over the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Its founders, who opposed the Fifteenth Amendment unless it included the vote for women, were Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Membership was open to women only. NWSA worked to secure women's enfranchisement through a federal constitutional amendment. Its rival from the split, the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), believed success could be more easily achieved through state-by-state campaigns. In 1890 NWSA and AWSA merged to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA).

1864 The Battle of New Market

The Battle of New Market was a battle fought on May 15, 1864, in Virginia during Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. Cadets from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) fought alongside the Confederate Army and forced Union General Franz Sigel and his army out of the Shenandoah Valley.

1864 Battle of Resaca

The Battle of Resaca was part of the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. The battle was waged in Gordon and Whitfield counties Georgia from May 13 to May 15, 1864. It ended inconclusively.

The battle was fought between the Military Division of the Mississippi (led by William T. Sherman) on the side of the Union and the Army of Tennessee (Joseph E. Johnston) for the Confederates. There were 5,547 casualties: 2,747 for the Union and 2,800 for the Confederacy.

Johnston had withdrawn from Rocky Face Ridge to the hills around Resaca. Sherman's men crossed the Etowah River using newly delivered Cumberland pontoon bridges and advanced toward Johnston's position.